Video Surveillance Bandwidth Guide 2017

Author: Ethan Ace, Published on Dec 16, 2016

Bandwidth is one of the most fundamental, complex and overlooked aspects of video surveillance.

Many simply assume it is a linear function of resolution and frame rate. Not only is that wrong, it misses a number of other critical elements and failing to consider these issues could result in overloaded networks or shorter storage duration than expected.

In this guide side, we take a look at these factors, broken down into fundamental topics common between cameras, and practical performance/field issues which vary depending on camera performance, install location, and more.

Fundamental Issues

  • Resolution: Does doubling pixels double bandwidth?
  • Framerate: Is 30 FPS triple the bandwidth of 10 FPS?
  • Compression: How do compression levels impact bandwidth?
  • CODEC: How does CODEC choice impact bandwidth?
  • Smart CODECs: How do these new technologies impact bandwidth?

Practical Performance/Field Issues

  • Scene complexity: How much do objects in the FOV impact bitrate?
  • Field of view: Do wider views mean more bandwidth?
  • Low light: How do low lux levels impact bandwidth?
  • WDR: Is bitrate higher with WDR on or off?
  • Sharpness: How does this oft-forgotten setting impact bitrate?
  • Color: How much does color impact bandwidth?
  • Manufacturer model performance: Same manufacturer, same resolution, same FPS. Same bitrate?

Scene Complexity

The most basic commonly missed element is scene complexity. Contrast the 'simple' indoor room to the 'complex' parking lot:

Even if everything else is equal (same camera, same settings), the 'complex' parking lot routinely requires 300%+ more bandwidth than the 'simple' indoor room because there is more activity and more details. Additionally, scene complexity may change by time of day, season of the year, weather, and other factors, making it even more difficult to fairly assess. 

We look at this issue in our Advanced Camera Bandwidth Test.

Inside, we cover the 10+ other issues listed above.

[[Note: this guide was originally released in 2014, but has been restructured and updated with additional information, including Smart CODECs and H.265]]

********* ** *** ** *** **** ***********, ******* *** ********** aspects ** ***** ************.

**** ****** ****** ** ** * ****** ******** ** ********** and ***** ****. *** **** ** **** *****, ** ****** a ****** ** ***** ******** ******** *** ******* ** ******** these ****** ***** ****** ** ********** ******** ** ******* ******* duration **** ********.

** **** ***** ****, ** **** * **** ** ***** factors, ****** **** **** *********** ****** ****** ******* *******, *** practical ***********/***** ****** ***** **** ********* ** ****** ***********, ******* location, *** ****.

Fundamental ******

  • **********: **** ******** ****** ****** *********?
  • *********: ** ** *** ****** *** ********* ** ** ***?
  • ***********: *** ** *********** ****** ****** *********?
  • *****: *** **** ***** ****** ****** *********?
  • ***** ******:*** ** ***** *** ************ ****** *********?

Practical ***********/***** ******

  • ***** **********:*** **** ** ******* ** *** *** ****** *******?
  • ***** ** ****: ** ***** ***** **** **** *********?
  • *** *****:*** ** *** *** ****** ****** *********?
  • ***: ** ******* ****** **** *** ** ** ***?
  • *********: *** **** **** ***-********* ******* ****** *******?
  • *****: *** **** **** ***** ****** *********?
  • ************ ***** ***********: **** ************, **** **********, **** ***. **** *******?

Scene **********

*** **** ***** ******** ****** ******* ** ***** **********. ******** the '******' ****** **** ** *** '*******' ******* ***:

**** ** ********** **** ** ***** (**** ******, **** ********), the '*******' ******* *** ********* ******** ***%+ **** ********* **** the '******' ****** **** ******* ***** ** **** ******** *** more *******. ************, ***** ********** *** ****** ** **** ** day, ****** ** *** ****, *******, *** ***** *******, ****** it **** **** ********* ** ****** ******. 

** **** ** **** ***** ** *** ******** ****** ********* ****.

******, ** ***** *** **+ ***** ****** ****** *****.

[[****: **** ***** *** ********** ******** ** ****, *** *** been ************ *** ******* **** ********** ***********, ********* ***** ****** and *.***]]

[***************]

**********

** *******, * ****** ************ ****** ******* ***** ***** (***, 2MP, ***.) *** *********. ** *** *******, ** * *** camera **** * **/* ** *********, * *** ****** ** ************ *** ~***/*. 

*******, ********** ****** ************* *** ****** *** ***********. ** **** testing, **** ******* ******** ** * *** **** **** ****** level (*.*., **** **% **** ********* *** ***% **** ******) while ****** **** ** *** ******* **** ****** (*.*., **** 200% **** ********* *** ***% **** ******). ***** **** ** obvious ******* / ******* **** ************* *** ****** ******** ** their **** ** ********.

** * **** ** *****, * ** ***** *** ** **** when ********** ********* ********** ****** **********. *******, ** ******** ********* measurements ** ****** ******* ** **** * **** ** ***** may ** *** ** * ***.

Frame ****

***** **** ******* *********, *** *** *****-***** ****** **** ** H.264, ** ** **** **** ******. ** ** *** ******** frame **** ** ***, *** ******** ** ********* ** ****** to ** *** ****, ***** **** * ** * ***** more *********. ************ ****, ** **** **, **, *** * fps ************ ** *********** *** ****** ** *** **** ** a ********** ******* ** *** ********** ****. *** ******* ******** were ** *******:

  • * ***: *.*** **/*
  • ** ***: *.*** **/* (*** *** ****** ** * ***, but **** ** *********)
  • ** ***: *.*** **/* (** *** ****** ** ** ***, but **** ****** *********. *** ****** ** * ***, *** only ** *********)

(***** ************ **** **** ** * * ***** *** ****** **** quantization ************ ~**.)

*** **** ****** ** ***** ****'* ****** ** *******, *** our ***** **** ***** *** ***** ************.

***********

***********, **** ***** ** ************, *** ** ******* ************ ** bandwidth: *** ****** *** ***********, *** ***** ********* **** **.

********: *********** *** ********** *** *** ********* ******. ** **** courses, ** ********* *** ************* *** *** ***. **********, ** our ********, ** *** ****** ** ****** ** ** ***** / *****. *********** ** *** ******* ********** ***** ****** ***.

*** *******, *** ***** ***** ***** *** ****** ** *********** ****** four ********* ******* (****: **** *.***, ************ / *********** ** measured ** * ******** ***** ** * ** **, ****** meaning **** ***********, ***** *******).

******** ************ **** ** (**** ***********) ** ** (*******) ******** in ** ***** * ** ******** ** *********, ***** ******* lowering ** ** ** (**** *** ***********) ******** ********* ** 5-11x ********* ** *** ******.

************, ************* *** ********* ****** *** *********** *** ***** *********** levels **** **** ****** ****** ********** ** **** ****** ************ level ** ****. **** *** *** * ******* ***** **** 1-100,***** ****** *** ****** **** ** "***, ****, ****", *** others *** *** ****** *-** ************ *****. **** ***** ***** just **** ** *** ******* ** ***:

*** *** ** ****** ************ *********** ********** *** **** ****** ** ************* ************ *********** *** *** ** standardize * ****** ****** ********* *****. 

******

* *** *************** ****** ****** ** ********** *****-****** (*.*., *.***, *.***) ** *****-***** **** (*.*.,*****, ********). 

  • *****-***** ****** **** ** *.***/*** *** **** ******** ******* ****** in ** *****, **** ********* ******** ****** *** ******** **** the ******* ** *** ***** **** ***** ** *****, *********** a ***** ********* *******. *** *******, ** * ******* ***** ******* an ***** *******, **** *** ****** ********** *** ****** ******* frames *** *** ***********, ***** *** ****** ********** ** ***.
  • *****-***** **** ****** ****** **** ********** ***** ** ** *****, *********** similar ****** ** *************. **** ******* ** ****** ********* ** **** ***** **** be **-******* *****, ********** ** *** ******** ** *** *****.

*** **** ** ***** *** ***** ***** ***********, *** *** ***** ********.

*** **** ******** ** ******* ** *** *****, *** *** the **** ******* *****, *** *.***, *** ** *** ********* advantages **** ****-* *** ****** ****. ** *** *.*** *******- ******* *** ********* ****** ********, *.*** ******** *** **** ********* ** *** ****** **** MJPEG, **** ** *** ***** *****:

What ***** *.***?

*.*** *** **** *** "**** *** *****" ** ****** *** several *****, ******** **% ******* **** *.***, *** ****** *** VMS ******* *** ** ****** ********** ****. ************, ** *** tests, *.*** *** *** ******* ******* **** *.*** ** ******* scenes, ***** **-**% ** *******, **** *.*** ***** ***** ******* (see ******* *****) ********* ********* ****** ********* ******* **** *.***.

*** *******, ** *** ***** *.*** ******* ****, *.*** ******** ~**-**% ***** ******** **** *.*** (**** ***** CODECs *** ** ****), ***** ** *** ***** *****. *******, using ***** ****** **** *.***, ******** ******* ** ** ***** ~40% (******* ***** *****) *** ** **** ** **%+.

**** **** *.*** ** ***** **********, *** **** ****** ****** more ********* **** ****, ** *.*** ***. 

******* ****** *** *** *.*** / **** ***** ******** *** **** ******* ** *.*** ******, ********* ********, ****** *******, and *** ***********.

I-Frames **. *-****** 

** *****-***** ******, ****** ***** ******* *** **** ***** ** view *** ****** *-******, ***** ***** ******* **** ******* *** P-frames. ******* **** ******* * **** *****, *** **** *-****** in * ******, *** ****** *** *********.

*** *****, ******* **** ********* **** **** ** *** * fixed I-frame ********, ******** ****** ** ******* ** ******. ******* *** few *-****** ***** ********** ****** *******, **** **** "******" ** ******** *********, ***** *** **** *-****** ******** little ** ** ******* *******, **** ** **** ***** **** our ****: *.*** * ** * ***** ******.


*******, **** *** ************ ** ***** ****** ** *** **** 1-2 *****, ******* *** *** **** ** *********** ****** *-***** interval, ******* ** ***** * ***** *****. ** ***** * typical ** *** ****** ***** ** *** ** **** ** I-frame ***** ******, * ***** ***** ******* ***** ***** ****** this **** ***** ** ** ****** ** *** *****, ***** in **** *******:

***** ****** *** * ******* *****, ******* ** **** ****** below *** ** *** ***** ***** *****

***** *-***** ******** *******

****** **** ******* *** ***** ***** ******* *** ** *** use ***** *-***** *********, **** (********** ***** ******) ** *** and ***** *** ****** ****** *** ** *** ****, ** it ** ********* ** ********** *** ****** ** *-***** ******** on *********.

******** *** ****** ** *-****** (****** **** * ** * to * ****** ********) ******** ******* ********* **********, ** **** below, ******* *** ****** ******** ***** ******* ******.

*********, ********** *** ****** ** *-****** ** **** **** *** per ****** ************* ********* *********, ******* *** ***************** ***** *******.

 

*** **** ******* ** * *** * ***** ****** ** bandwidth *** ***** ******* *** *** *.*** * ** * ***** ****

 

Smart ******

*** ****** *********** **** **** ****** ** ********* ** *** introduction ** ***** ******. ***** ************ ********* ****** ******* ** two ****:

  • ******* ***********: *****, ******* ** ***** * ****** *********** ***** *** *** whole *****, *** ****** *** ***** ****** *********** ** ****** objects, **** ****** ***********/***** ******* ** ****** ********** *****, ***** we **** ***** ** *** **** ******** ****** ** ***** ***** of *** *****.
  • ******* *-***** ********: ******, ******* ** ***** * ****** *-***** interval, ******* *** ******** *** ******** ******* *-****** **** *** scene ** *****, **** **** ********* ** **** **** ********* in *** *****, **** * ****** ** **** *****. ****, when ****** ******, *** ****** *********** ********* ** *-***** *** reduces ******** ** ******** ******.

**** ***** ****** *** *** ***** ******* ** ****, **** as ******* ********** (**** ******/********), *********/*************** ***** ********* (********* ***** ******), *** ******.

***** ******* **** ** **** ***** ***** *** ***** ************* vary. *******, ** *******, ******** ** ***** ****** **** ******* by **-**% ** *** *****, **** **** **% ********.

** ** *******, ** *** **** ** ********* *, ******** dropped ** ~**% ** ***** ****** ***** ******* ***********, *-***** interval, *** ***:

*** **** *******, *** *** ***** ***** *****.

Camera ***** ** ****

***** ** ****'* ****** ** ********* ****** ********* ** ***** ***** reveals **** ******* ******* ** *** *****. ** ****** **** large ***** ** ****** *******, **** ** ***** ** ***** blowing **********, ******** *** ***** ** **** **** ****** ******** bandwidth. ** ****** **** ********** *** ******** *** ********** ***********, such ** ******* ****, *******, ********* ****** ** *****, ***., narrowing *** ***** ** **** **** ******** ********* *** ** more ** ***** **** ******* ***** ***********.

*** *******, ** *** **** ***** *****, ********** *** ***** of **** ******* ** * ~**% ******** ** ********* *** ** more ****** ******* *** ******* ** *** ***** ******** ** the ******** ***** ** ****.

*******, ** * ****************/**********, ********* ********* ** **** **% ** *** ******* ***** when ******** *** ***** ** ****. ** *** ******** ***, more ******* ** ********* *** *******, *** *** ********** ******* of *** ******* ******* *** *** ** **** ** ****, making *** ***** **** ********* ** ******.

*** ******* ******* ** ***** ** ****'* ****** ** *********, see *** ******** ****** ********* ****.

Low *****

******** ** *** ****, *** ***** ******** **** ** ******* of ****** ***% ****** (**** *****). **** ** ****** ****** by ********* ******* ***** ****** ** **** ****** ** ****. 

*******, *** *** ************ *** ************ **** ** ****** ****:

  • ******* ***** ******************* **** ******** ** ****** *****, ******* ******** ***** ****** on **** *******.
  • ********* *** ** ********** ** ******* ******* ** ******* ****** at *****. ******** ** ****** ***% ** ***/***** ******, ********** IR ******* ********* ** ** ******* ** ***% *** ** IR ************ (**** *****).

*** **** ******* ** *** *****'* ****** ** *********, *** our ********* ** *** ***** **** ******.

Wide ******* ***********

***'* ****** ** ******* ****** ********* ** *** ****** *** the *****. ***** ****** ******** **** *********** ****** ********* ****, **** ********* *** ** ** ** **** *** ** an ******* ************ *****, ********* *********, ** **** ******* *** visible (******* *** ***** ** *********, ** *** ********, ***.). 

*******, ******* ** ** ******* ***** *** ****** *****, ********* *********. In **** ****, *** ***** ********* ******** ******** ** **** ***** of *** *****, **** ** *** ***** *** ********* ** the******/****** *** ***. ******* ** ****, ***** ***** *** **** similarly ******* *** ****** ** ********, ******** *******.

**** **** *** ***** *******, ***** ******* *** ****, ********* on *** **** **** ****** ***** *** **** *****, *** they ****** ******** **** *** ** ****** **, *** ****.

 

*********

********* *** * **** ****** ** ********* ***********, *** ** is ****** ********** ****** *************, **** ** *********** ***********.********************* **** **** (****** ****** *********** ******) ******* ** *** scene, **** ** ****** *** ****** ********, ***** ** ****** and ****** ** *****, ***. ******* **** ****** ** *****, bandwidth *********.

*** *******, ** *** *** ***** (**** *** ******** ****** ********* ****), ******* ********* ** ****** ***% **** ******* ** ******* ********* in **************, *** ****** ***% ** *** **** *****.

 

Color **. **********

** ********* ****** (******* ************ ** ************** *******), ***** *** minimal ****** ** *********. ** *** ******** *****, ****** **** default ***** ******** ** ********** ********* ********* ** ** **/*, about ** *% ********.

*******, ************** *** ******** ********** **** *********. ** **** *******, ********* ********* ** over ***% **** ******** ***** ******** *********** ** ***** ******* *****, ***** **** ******* ************** ******* such ** ***** ******** (**** ** *** *** *****).

*** ********* ******* ** * *********** ************ ***** ***** ** 'save' ********* ** ******* ********* ******* **** (***** ** ****** ****).

Manufacturer ***** ***********

****** ******** ****** ** * ***** ************'* ****, *********** *********** in ******* *** *****, ******* *** ******* ***** *** **** resolution *** *********. **** *** ** *** ** ********* ***** sensors ** ********** ***** ****, ********* ******* ******** ** **** *****, better ** ***** *** ***** ***********, ** *** ****** ** other *******.

*** *******, *** ********* ***** ***** *** *******, ** **** Q1604 *** **** *****, **** ****, ** ***, *** ** a ~**' ********** ***, ** *********** ** ~***. ******* ***** factors ***** ************, ** **** **** *** ****** *****, *** Q1604's ******* *** *** **/* ***** *** ***** ******** *.** Mb/s, ****** ** *** *********.

******: ***** *********** **** ****** **** ******* ** **** *****, as **** ******* ******* ***** ****** ***** ****** ** *** same **** *** ***. 

Measure **** *** *******

** **** ***** *****, ***** *** *** ****, **** ***** for ********** ********* (*** *********) *******, **********. *** **** ******* impact **, *** **** ** **** *** ****** ** ********** to **** ******* ****** *** ******. 

****** ** ** ********* ** ********** ***** ******* ****** *********, use **** ********* **** **** *** ************ ** *** ******* you **** ** ******. **** **** ****** *** **** ******** estimates *** ******** *** ***********.

Comments (19)

********* ******* ***** !!... **** ** *** **** ****. ** only *** **** ********** ** ******** *********** *** **** ** in ***** ** ********* **** ** ********* ******* **** *********, I ***** **** * *** ** ********* ********* .... *'** heard ****** **** ** ******* ** ** *.** ** **** (misleading ********* **** ** *** ********)...

******* ** ***** **: *****, ***** ********, ** *** ********. HSDPA ** ** ******** ** **&* *** *** * ************ tech ******* ** *** **. ***** **** * *** ************ network ********* ****** ** *.**, *.***, ***. ********* *** ************ standards ****'* **** *** ** **** ************ ** *** ** label.

***** ********* ****** **** *****. ****** **** ****.

******** *** **** ********* *******... **** *** ****** ****** ****.

:)

*, ******,***!

**'* ***** ****** **** ** ***** ** *******, *** **'* not ***** ** ***** **** ****** ** *** ***** ****.

**** ****, ** ***** **** ** * *********** ******** *** industry ****** ** ********* *** *** ** ** *** ** our*******.

*****, **** *** *** ********** **** ** ******* *** ***** rate ****** ** *********?

**'** **** ******** ***** **** ***** ** ******** *********** (** and **) **** *** *****. *** ********** ****** ******* *** same *****.

*****, ****** *** ************ *******.

*** ********;

**** *** ********** **~**% ********* ***** ** *** ********** ********* bandwidth ** **** ******. *** *******, ** *** ******* ** 1GB, ** ** **** *********** ** **** ****** ********* ***** of ***~*****.

** **** ******? ** ***** * ****** ****** *** ****?

******, ********* *** ****** ***** ** * **-**% ********* ******, so ** ** ** ***/*, **** *** ***-*****/*. *********, **'* the ***** *** ******.

***, ** *******, ******* * **** ***** *** ******** *** measured ** **** (***** **** *). ************ **** *** ****** (b/s).

**** ****-******** **** ** ***** ** *********** ********** *** *** packet ******** ** ***/**.

** ********** *****, ** *** **** * ***** *******, *** you **** *** ** **** ** ******** ****** *** *******, you ****** *** * ******** **** ** ** ******* (*** = ****). ******* ***'** ****** *** * ******** **** ** at ***** ** *******, ******* **** **** *** ** ** broken **** ******* *** *********** ** ******. *** ******* ** adding *** *********** "*******" ** *** **** ******* ****** ******* more **** ** ********. *** **** **** **** ********** **** other ******* ** *** *******.

*** **** ** ***** *** **** * ***** ******* *** transfer ****** **** ** * **** ** ***** **% **'* rated ******** ***.

**** ******* ******* *** **** **** ** ** ******* **** even **** *** ********, *** ********* ****** ** *** ****** is *** ****** ***** ** ** *****. * ****** **** a ***** *** ******* ***** ******** *** ** ************ *.***** or **** ** *****.

** *** **** * ********* ******* *** *******/******** ****, * would *** ** **** **** **% ** *** ***** ******* speed *** ******* *********. **: * ******* ******* ***** **** 70Mbps ** "******" *********. ** *** **** *** ******* ****** at *****, *** ****** ** **** ** ******* ** ******* on **** ******* ******* ******* **** ***** ******* ********** ******.

** *** ******* ** ******, ** **** * *** **** variables.

* *** ********* **** ** **** *****, **** ******, ********* models ***** **** ****** ** ********!. *** ******** ** ** mind **: ***** ** **** *****? ***** ** ** **** efficient? ********* ** ***** ************* (+***, +***... *******).

** **** *******, **** ***** **** *** **/* *** **** M3004 **** *,*** **/*, ****** **** ***** *******, *** ***** almost ** ***** **** ********, ** * ***** ******* **** cameras ** **** *******/**** ** ****** ****, **** ******** ** the *** ** ******** *** **** *** ********* ***, **** space ** **** ***** ** ** **** ** ******** *****.

******* ***** **** ** ***** ****, ****** $*** **. ***** at $***. (********* *****)

**, ** * ****** **** ***** ** *** ******, **** more ****** ** ******* **** *******, *** **** **** ** spend **** ** *** ******* (**** ***** ** ***/*******) *** more **** ****** ** *** ********?

** **** ** **** ** **** **** ****, ***** ** can *** **** **** ******, *** **** ** *** ******* of *******, ******** ***** ** *** ***** ***** ** ***** more ** *** ****** ****, ** **** ** *** *******/******* side.

******* ******** *** ****** *** ********** ***** ****. * ***** link ******** **** **** (*** *******) *** ***** *******. ****'* a *** ** ******* *** * *** ** *****. ******* topologies *** ** ******** ** ******* *** ********* ****** ***** without *** **** ********** ****. *** *** ******* ************ ********** and **** **** *** ***** ******* ***** ** ************. ** while **** ******* ********* ** ********* ** ******* **** *******, I ***** ***'** **** **** *** ********** **** ***** ** comparison ** *** **** ** *******--********** ** **** ********* ***** are *******.

*****, *'* ******** *** *** ****** **** ****. ****** ********* the ******** * **** * ******** ** *******: *** ***** Bandwidth *** *********** ******* *** **** ********** ** *** ********* (i.e. ***** ** ********)?

******** *****'* **** ** ***** ****** *, ** *'* ********** that *** ********** ** *** ******* ********* ** ***'* ****** based ** ***** ** ********.

*** ***** ********* ******* *** *** **** ******* **'* ***** or ********. *** *** ********** **** ******** (*********) ** ***** you **** **** ** ** *** ******** ********* ** **** stable. *** *******, **** ***** *** ********** ** ********* *** going ** **** **** ***/* ** *****/* *** **** ******** bandwidth ***** ****** ** *** **** ********* ** *** *******, what ***** ****** *** ****** ** ******, ** ***** ****, etc. ** ***** ***** ******** ** ***** *.

******** #*: ******* ** ********** ********* ** ** ******* **** ** *** ****** ****'* ** the **-**** ********. ** **** **** ** **** ** ***********?

****** * ********* *** *** ******** *** *** *** ****?

****, *** **** *** *** **** **** ********. ***** **'* a *** ****, ** ***'* **** ****** ** ******** ******** (by **********). **** ****** **** **** ******, **** **** ** print ** ***, **** ** **** ****.

**** ** * ***** ***** **** ***. **** ********* ***'* understand **** *** ******* **** **** ******'* ** *** **** way **** ****.

******

***** *********, *****. ***, **** ** * **** ********* **** a *** *********** **** **** ***** ** ***********, ***** ** varied *** *****.

****://**********.****.***/*****/*****.***?******=****&**=&********=*******

** ******, ****** **** ****** ******* **** ***** *** **** informative **** ******** *******. * **** **** ** *** ****** there ***** ** ** *********** *** * ********* ** * few ****** *** ***** *** *** **** ********* *******.

*** *******, ** *** ***** *.*** ******* ****, *.*** ******** ~15-20% ***** ******** **** *.*** (**** ***** ****** *** ** both)...

****** **** ***** ****** ** ****, *** * **** ****** a **% *********** ** *.*** **** *.***.

****** * ***. ** ** **** ******.

***, * **** * ******** *** *********.

********* ** *****,

"*.*** *** **** *** "**** *** *****" ** ****** *** several *****, ******** **% ******* **** *.***, *** ... *** had ******* ******* **** *.*** ** ******* ******, ***** **-**% on *******, **** *.*** ***** ***** ******* ********* ********* ****** bandwidth ******* **** *.***."

***** *** '**% *******' **** ****? ** ** ********* ******?

** ** ** ******* ******* **% *******, *** ******* ********* is ***?

** ** **** *** ********** ** ******** ********* ***/** ********** power?

**** *******.

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The Chinese government is using video surveillance to spy on churches in China, reports UCANews, explaining: The [Chinese government]...
Hanwha Wisenet X Tested on Mar 27, 2017
Hanwha has released their latest generation, the Wisenet X series, powered by their new Wisenet 5 processor. This new series claims improvements...
Burglar Alarm Sirens Guide on Mar 27, 2017
Sirens are used to alert users to an alarm condition. In this note, we examine how to choose, locate, and install alarm sirens, including Siren...

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