The PPF / PPM Video Surveillance Guide

Author: IPVM Team, Published on Dec 23, 2016

Pixels per foot / Pixels per meter is the most fundamental and valuable, though imperfect, metric for specifying video surveillance image quality.

In a single number, this metric (e.g., 10ppf, 40ppf, 100ppf) conveys important information about what the projected quality that a camera can provide.

The image below, taken from our Camera Calculator, demonstrates examples of common pixel per foot (ppf) levels:

PPF Established Metric

PPF has become a critical established metric for several reasons:

  • Broad camera manufacturer support: Most major manufacturers use this metric.
  • Common A&E specifications: Architects and engineers who plan large projects regularly use PPF / PPM as the basis for their designs and surveillance plans.
  • Need for Something: With so many resolution options today (from 1MP to 12MP and beyond), the old metrics which used percentage of screen covered make no sense. PPF has filled this void.

The Goal of PPF

PPF is a single metric (e.g., 10, 50, 90, etc.) that when specified should deliver a specific level of quality. For example, the parking lot camera must deliver 50 PPF. Instead of guessing or just specifying more resolution, using this metric should enable selection of the ‘right’ resolution for the scene. The final image, following the PPF metric, will then deliver a predictable level of quality.

PPF Problems

Alas, PPF suffers from many problems that must be factored in:

  • Assumes even lighting and ignores the impact of bright sunlight
  • Assumes day time lighting and ignores the impact of night time / low light viewing
  • Disregards differences in lenses and compression
  • Disregards that image quality needs are subjective and debatable
  • Fails to specify related and critical metrics to complement PPF

Despite this, PPF does have value for estimation and planning. It just cannot be used blindly or simplistically. Inside the PRO Member’s section, we explain:

  • How to calculate PPF
  • How to recognize PPF limitations and make adjustments
  • How to best use PPF productively

****** *** **** / ****** *** ***** ** *** **** fundamental *** ********, ****** *********, ****** *** ********** ***** ************ image *******.

** * ****** ******, **** ****** (*.*., *****, *****, ******) conveys ********* *********** ***** **** *** ********* ******* **** * camera *** *******.

*** ***** *****, ***** **** ********* **********, ************ ******** ** ****** ***** *** **** (***) ******:

PPF *********** ******

*** *** ****** * ******** *********** ****** *** ******* *******:

  • ***** ****** ************ *******: **** ***** ************* *** **** ******.
  • ****** *&* **************: ********** *** ********* *** **** ***** ******** ********* *** PPF / *** ** *** ***** *** ***** ******* *** surveillance *****.
  • **** *** *********: **** ** **** ********** ******* ***** (**** *** ** 12MP *** ******), *** *** ******* ***** ************** ** ****** *********** ** *****. *** *** ****** **** ****.

The **** ** ***

*** ** * ****** ****** (*.*., **, **, **, ***.) that **** ********* ****** ******* * ******** ***** ** *******. For *******, *** ******* *** ****** **** ******* ** ***. Instead ** ******** ** **** ********** **** **********, ***** **** metric ****** ****** ********* ** *** ‘*****’ ********** *** *** scene. *** ***** *****, ********* *** *** ******, **** **** deliver * *********** ***** ** *******.

PPF ********

****, *** ******* **** **** ******** **** **** ** ******** in:

  • ******* **** ******** *** ******* *** ****** ** ****** ********
  • ******* *** **** ******** *** ******* *** ****** ** ***** time / *** ***** *******
  • ********** *********** ** ****** *** ***********
  • ********** **** ***** ******* ***** *** ********** *** *********
  • ***** ** ******* ******* *** ******** ******* ** ********** ***

******* ****, *** **** **** ***** *** ********** *** ********. It **** ****** ** **** ******* ** **************. ****** *** PRO ******’* *******, ** *******:

  • *** ** ********* ***
  • *** ** ********* *** *********** *** **** ***********
  • *** ** **** *** *** ************

[***************]

Key ***************

**** ** ****:

  • *** ** *** **** *** **** *******. *** *** ******* yourself ** *** ***** * ****** ****** *** *** ***** to ********** ********* ** ******* ** ***** ******* ****** ********** and ******.
  • ********** *** *** *********** ** **** ** *** *** ***** mistakes.
  • *** *** ** * ******** ** *** * ***** ** potential *********** **** ****** *** ******** **** ********.
  • *** *** ****** ***** ********* ******* ****** **/*/*** ** ***** surveillance.
  • *********** *********** *** *** ****** ************.
  • ** *** ************ ** ******* ********* *** ***** ***** **** in **************. *******, ******* ********** *** *** ****** ********** (***, low ***** ***********, ***.)

PPF ** ***

****, ** *** *** ********** **** ******, *** ********* *** metric **********, ****** *** ***** (***), ** ****. *******, *** is ******** ****, **** ** **** ******* ************ ** *** metric ******.

*** *********, *** ***** ***** ***** **** ******** *** ****** for **********. **** **** ******* ****** ************** ******** ****** ************, ** ******** ** ******** / ***.

How ** ********* ***** *******

*********** ***** ******* ******* ** *** ******/*******:

  • *** ****** ** ********** ****** ** * ***** ****/******
  • *** ***** ** *** *** ** *** ****** ** *** point ** ********

Horizontal ***** *****

** ******* ** ******** ******** *** ********** ***** ***** *** do *** ******* ** **** *** ******** *** *** ******* resolution. *** ********, * **** ****** *** * ***** ********** of *** (*********** *.***) *** *** ********** ***** ***** ** 1280 *** *** ******** ***** ***** ** ***, **** ******** described ** **** * ***. ** ** *** ***** ****** in **** ****, *** ****, **** ****** *** ********* ***.

**** *** ********** ***** ****** *** ****** ***********:

**** **** ** ******** **** ** **** *** ***** ***********.

Selecting *** *****

*** ****** **** ** *** *********** ** *** **** * Field ** **** *** ***** ** *****. *** ***** ***** shows * ****** ******** *** ********* *** ***, ****** ******* across ** *** ***** ** ********, **** *** **** *****:

*********** *** ***** ** *** *** *** ** ******** *** larger, **** *****, **** ** ******* **** ** ******. *** instance, *** ********* ***** ***** *** ********* *** ****** *** covering * ******* ***/*****.

**** ** ***** **** *** ** '*****', *** ** ******* on ******** *******.

  • ** ***** ******* ***** *** ****?** ******* ****** ** ******* ** *** ***** ** **** one, ****** ** *** **** ** *** ****** *****, ** may ** ****** ** *** *** ******** ***' *** *** calculations. ** ***** ** ** ***** ********, *** ***' *** need ** ** ****.
  • **** ********** *********** *** *****?** ****** ********* ** ******* ** ***********, ** **** **** this ** **** **** ********* ****. **** *** ** *** if ***** *** ***** ****** *** ********, ***** *** ********* limited ** *****. *** ** ** ** **** ******* *** be ****, ***** **** *** ********.

** ***** ** *** ***********, ** ********* ***** ***** ****, so **** *** ** *** ************* **** ***.

PPF *******

**** *** **** ********** *** ********** ****** ** *** ****** chosen *** ******** **** *** *****, *** ** ****** ********.

**** *** * *** ********:

  • *** *** ***** * **** ****** ** ***** * ** foot **** ********: *** = *** ******* ********** ***** ***** is **** *** *** ***** = ** (*.*., **** / 10).
  • *** **** * *** ****** ******** * *** **** **** parking ***: *** = ~** ******* ********** ***** ***** ** 2592 *** *** ***** = *** (*.*., **** / ***).
  • * ***** ****** ** ********** * ** **** **** ******* entrance: *** = ** ******* ********** ***** ***** ** **** and *** ***** = ** (*.*., **** / **).

PPF ********* ** *** ***** *** ******** **** ****** *********

******* ** *** **** * '******' ***. **** *** *** is ******* ** *** *** *** ******* ** ******** ** from *** ******. *** ********, ***** ******* ****** **********, ** *** ***** **** * ******'* ***, ***** ***** PPF ** **** *****. ** *** *** **** *** ********* as ** ******** *** ****** ** ** ***, *** ******* the ****** ** ******* *********, ** ***, ***, ** *** PPF.

******* *********, *** *** ***** ********* ** ** ***** *** FOV, **** *****. ******** *** ****** ** *** *** *****, we *** *** *** ********, *********** ** ***.

*** *** *** **** *** ******** ** ******* ****** **********.

Fisheye ***** ** **** ******

*******, ****** ** ***** ** **** ***** **** ***** ******* panoramic ******, ** *** ***** ************, **** ****** **** ******** cameras.

***** *** (*) *** ******* ** ** *******, *** * fisheye ********* (*** ****) *** *** ***** ***** * ~**° HFoV. ******* *** **** ** *** ** ******** ** **** away **** **** ******:

  • **** * *** *********, ** ** **** **** **** *** camera, *** *** ** ~**
  • **** * *** '************' **° ****, ** ** **** **** from *** ******, *** *** ** ~***

**** ** * ******* ********* **********. ***** *** ********* *** see ** '***' **********, ** *** *********, ** ** **** away, ****** **** **** **** ***** (**** **** ********). ** contrast, *** '************' **** **** ******* **** ******** ******* ****** though ****** * **** ******** ****.

*** *** **************** ********* ****** *********** **** *******.

Recognizing *** ***********

**** ***** *********** ***, ***** *** ******* ****** ***** ****** the ********* ******* ** ****** *********. *****, ** ******:

  • *** ****** ** ****** ******** / **** ******* ******
  • *** ***** / ***** **** *******
  • *********** / ***** ******* ******* ******
  • **** ******* ***********
  • ********** ***** ******* ************
  • ************* ******* ** ***

Wide ******* ***** ***********

*** ******* *** ****** *** *** **** *** *** ********* power *** **** *************. *** ******* ** ****** ****** ********* / ******** ** * *** *******. ** *** ***** *****, both ******* **** *** **** **********, ***** *** **** *** and *** ***** ** *** **** ****:

*******, *** ***** ** *** ***** ***** **** ** *** twice *** *** ***** ** *** *****. ****** *** *** is *** ****, *** ****** ** *** ***** *** *** stronger *** **** ********* ***.

**** ** ** ***** **** ** ****** **** **** ******** variations ** ***** ******. ** *** ***** *****, **** * has * ***** *** **** **** * *** **** * clearly ******** **** ***** ****** ******* **** * ** ** a ****** **** **** *** ****** ********* ** ****** ***********.

*** ****** ******** ******* **** *********** ** **** ******* ***** *** ***** *******.

Low ***** ***********

**** ** **** ********** *** *****, ** **** ** ****,****** ********* **** ****************, **** ******* ***** ******** ***** *******. **** *** ** seen ** *** ****** ** ****** *****, ******* *** ******* in *** **** **** **** *** ****** ** ******* ***** from *** ** *****, **** ***** ****** ******** ** ~*,***** on *** ****, *** ***** *** ** *** *****.

******* *** ***** *** ***** '****' ** ******* *********, **** the **** ******* ******* ***** ******* *** ******* **** ***** than ****** *** ***. *******, ************ *** ********** ****** ***** make **** ******** ********** *****.

** *** ****** **********, ** ******* ******* ***** ** **** world *** *** ***** ****** ** **** **** **********, **** PPF ********* ** **** **** ** ***** ****** ***** *******' parameters.

Differences ** ***********

******* *** ********* ******* **** *** ** *********** ***** ********. Even ** *** **** ********** *** *** **** ***** *** used, *** ****** ** *********** *** **** *******. ***** ************ that:

** ***** **** ***** *'* *** ** *** ***** **** image *, *** **** ** *** *** ****. *** *** less *** **** ***** * *** **** ** *** *** case. **** ****** *** ***** **** *** **** ******, **** the **** ********** ***** ********* *********** ** ***** *.

****** ** *** ********* *********, ************* *** **** ********* ******* compression ********, ** **** ** ********* *********** *** ***** ******* quality ******. ******* ****** *** ***** ****** ************ *********** ************* ******* ** ***** ******** *** ************ *****.

***** ****** ** ******* ** ***** *********** ****** ********** ************* ********* ** ***** ***** ******** ******. *** ******** ******* / *********** *********** **** ******* ** *********** *** *** *******.

Lens ***********

**** ***** **** **** ******* *** **** * **** ********** in ***** *******, ********** ** *** ****** ********. *******, ** our *****, **** ******* ** ****** * ***** *******, ******* fine ******* *********** ***** *** *********** ** **** ******. ***** factors, **** ***-****,******, *** ********** ************ *** *** **** ****** ** ****** image *******.

Subjective ***** *******

******* *** **** ********** ******* ** *** ** *** ********** the '*****' ******* ***** *** **. **** ** '****** ** in *** *** ** *** ********', *** ********** ****** *** think * ***** ******* ***** ** **** ****** ** '********' a *******, *** ******* *** ******* ************* **** ****** ** target *** ********.

*** *******: * ******** ***** ** ****** * ***** *******. Which ** *** ***** *** ****** ***** ** *****?

***** **** ** **** **** ****** ******* *** *** ** them **** ** ***** ** *******, **** ***** ****** *** 18 ** ** *** ******, ** **** **** **** **** just * ****** '****', **** **** **** ***** *******.

*** **** ********* ******** ****** **** ******** ******* *** **** pixels *** ****** ** ******** * ******** ******. ******* *** images *****:

**** ****** **** *** *** ~** *** ** *** **** is *** ***** *** **** **** **** * '*******' *****. Others **** **** ** **** ******, ********** ** *** ****** is *****, **** ** ** ******** ** ********.

********** ** **** ** '******' ****** ** ******, *** ***** to ****** **** *** ***** / ******** ***** **** **** think ** **********.

Related / ******** *******

**** ********** *******, *** ***** **** *** ******* ****** *********** to ******** ****** *******, ******* ** ********* ** *********. **** using ***, ******* ******* **** ** ****:

  • ***** ** **** *****: ***** ************** **** ** ****** *** *** *** *** needs ** **, ********* **** * *** ******. **** *** create ********* ** **** **** *** ******** ** ***** **** than ******. *******, ************ ***** *** ****, *.*., ** *** at ** ****, ***.
  • ******** ** ******: ******* *** *** *** ****** ***** ** ******* *** given *** ******* **** ********* ** **** ** *** ***** of *** ***. ********, *** ******* **** **** *** ****** one ****, *** ***** *** ***.
  • ***** ** *********: *******, ********** ** *** ****** ** ******, ** *** camera ****** *** ******* ********** ** ************, *** **** **** key ******* **** ***** ** ******* ***** **********. ** ********* ****** ** ***** ***********, ** ********** **** **° ** **** ** ***** *** proper ****** ******.

FOV **** **********

******* ** ********* ** ********** ***** ********* ******* **** **********, PPF ********* *** ****** ****** *** ******* *****. *** *******, in ***** **' **** ** ****, * ***** ****** **** provide ~******, **** **** ****** ****** *** * **** ******* day **** *****. ** ********, ** *** **** ***** ** SD ******, ** *** *** **** ***, *** ***** **** to ***** **** *** ***** ** * **** **** - a **% ********.

** *** ****** **** ****, *** **** ********* ****** *** performance ********* **** ** *** ******'* *** ***** *** *** performance. ********, ***** ******* **** ***** ******* **** ****** ******** and *** ***** *** *** **** ****** ** ****** ******** a '****** *** *****'.

Larger **** **** *********

*******, ***** **-** **** **** ****, *** ********* ******* **** trickier. ****** ** **** ***** ** * *** ****** **** increases *** ********** ***** ***** ********, ~**%. ******* ***********, ********* low ***** *** *** *********** ** *** ******* *** ***** than ***** ****.

** ******* ***** ********** *** *** ***** ***** ** ** can ****** ******** ** *** ***. *** ********, ***'* *** you **** ***** ****** * *** **** **** ****. ** do **, *** **** **** **** ********** ******. * ****** 14MP ****** *********** **** (** ** *** ~**** ********** ******) as ***** (*) *** *******. *** **** ******** ***** ***** be (*) ***** *******. ***** *** ***** *** ** ******** less (****), *** ******* ******* *** ** ******** ** ***, low *****, ***** ****, ***** ******* *******, ***.

PPF ********** ******* ** *************

**** *** **** ** ****, *** ****** ******* ** ************ PPF **********.********:***** ******* ****** ******, **** ******** *** ** *** ****** in *** ****** ** ****** ******** ** **** ****** ********, which ** ****** ************.

****** **********:

  • **** ******* / *********** ****** *** ******* ******:************* ******* ******* ** *** *** ***. **** ** ***** conditions, ** ** ******** ** ******* ***** *********** *******, ********** of ******* ******. ** ********, *** ** ****** ******** ****** lighting ** **** **** ** **** **** ******* **** ** visible, **** ** *** ****** ******* ** ********.
  • ******** ******* / ****** *** **** ** ****** (******, ***) is ***** *** *** *** *********** *******:************* ********* ********* ******* ** *** ** ***. **** ** fairly ********* ** **** ** ******** ** *****.
  • *** ******* / ********* ****:************* ******* * - ** ***. ** *******, ******* ** this *****, ** *** ** **** **** ** **** ******* out ****** *** ******* **** **** **** *** ***** ** if *** *** ******* *********. ** ******, **** **** ******** ideal ********. *** ** ***, ** *** **** **** **** 10 ***, *** *** ****** ****** ** **** *******. *******, some ********* ******* **** * *** *** ** ********, ** may ***** ** ****.

[****: **** ***** *** ********** ******* ** **** *** *** revised ** ****/**** ** ******** ******* ******* *** ******* ****** examples **** *** **** ****** **********.]

Comments (10)

*******, ** *** *****, **** ******* ** ****** * ***** concern, ******* **** ******* *********** ***** *** *********** ** **** lenses...

*** ***** **** * ******** **** ** ****** *** ***** effect ** ******** ***? **** ***** **** ********* **** ** certain ***** ***** ***** ** *********** ***********,* ***** **** ** **** ****** *** **** *****.

**** **** ****** ***** ******* **********, ****** *** ****** ** have ****** ***.

*** ***** * **** *****. **'** *** **** **** ***** long ****** *** *******.

***** *******.

****, ** *** *** ********** **** ******, *** ********* *** metric **********, ****** *** ***** (***), ** ****. *******, *** is ******** ****, **** ** **** ******* ************ ** *** metric ******.

**** **** *** ******** ***-****** ******* ******* **.

******* ***** **** '********' ******* *** **** * ******, ***** are **** * ********* ** *** ***** *** ***** *** metric ******. *** **** ** ******* ** ***** ** *******, it's *** *** **** *** *** *********** ** ****. ** I *** *** (****) ** ******* ** *** ****** ***. As '********'******** ***** ************ *********** ******, **** ******** *** **** *********, testing *** ******** *** **,***+ ***************'[** ******** ** *** ***** ** ****], *** *** *** serving? **** ** *** **** ***** *********** ****?

*** ***, '*** ** ******** ****, **** ** **** ******* standardized ** *** ****** ******. * ****** **** *** **** that ******* **? **** ***********,****** ** ****, ***** *** ****** ** ******* *** ** what ** *** ***** ***?

*** ** ******** ********* ** ********* *** ********** (****) *** a **** *********** ***** ** *** ******* ** ****** ******* in *** *** ** *****://***.****.***/*****/*******/*****/*********/***/***/******/*****.***

****** *** **** ************* *** ***** *** ****.

*****,

*** ********** *** **** ********* ****** *** ******** ****** *** country *** **** ******* ********** ** ****** *** ***** ********* who *** ******.

** **** *** ** ********** ** *** ****** ** **** as *** *** *** ******** / ******** ***** *** *** Year's *** ****** *** ****.

*****, ***, ** ***** *** ************ ** *** ****** ****** the ******. ******.

*** ****** ******* *** *** ********** ***** ***** ** ****, for *** **********, ** **** **** *** ****** ** ****, for *** **********?

**** ******** ** ** ********* ** *** ***** ** **** for ** **** ********.

*****, **** ***.

*** ****** **** *** *** * ***** ********** ***** ***** than * *** ****** ** *** ********** ** ****** ******, i.e., *** ******* *** '******' **** *** ****:

*** - **** * ****

*** - **** * ****

******* -****** ***** **:* ** *:* ********

****, *** ******* **** ******** ******* ******** ***** ***** *** much ******** ********** ***, *.*., *** - **** * ****

**** * ****** **** ** ***.

* **** ** ****, *** * ***'* ********** *** ********. Can *** ******?

Login to read this IPVM report.
Why do I need to log in?
IPVM conducts unique testing and research funded by member's payments enabling us to offer the most independent, accurate and in-depth information.

Related Reports

Uniview Intrusion Analytics and VMD Tested on Aug 13, 2018
IPVM's IP Camera Analytics Shootout featuring Avigilon, Axis, Bosch, Dahua, Hanwha, Hikvision created some ill will with a Uniview distributor who...
Camera Focusing Tutorial on Aug 09, 2018
A camera's focus is fundamental to quality imaging. Mistakes can cause important problems. In this guide, we explain focus issues and proper...
Hikvision PanoVu Mini Tested (Multi-imager + PTZ For ~$500) on Aug 07, 2018
Hikvision has released their first PanoVu Mini multi imager, the PanoVu DS-2PT3326IZ-DE3, with four 1080p imagers, including a PTZ and integrated...
Camera Cable Whip Guide on Aug 03, 2018
Cable whips are one of integrator's least favorite camera features but seem to be unavoidable, now commonplace on dome, turret, and bullet cameras...
Panasonic 9MP Panoramic Fisheye Tested (WV-X4571L) on Aug 02, 2018
Panasonic has released their latest fisheye camera, the WV-X4571L, with 12MP sensor and 9MP resolution, claiming "extreme image quality" under...
Installing Surveillance Cameras Into Synthetic Stucco (EIFS) Tutorial on Jul 30, 2018
Mounting cameras into synthetic stucco, commonly known as EIFS finishes, can be problematic If not properly planned, EIFS/stucco can be downright...
IP Camera Analytics Shootout - Avigilon, Axis, Bosch, Dahua, Hanwha, Hikvision, Uniview on Jul 30, 2018
Video analytics are hot again. But whose analytics really work? IPVM bought and tested Avigilon, Axis, Bosch, Dahua, Hanwha and Hikvision cameras,...
Uniview Super Low Cost 4MP Tested on Jul 25, 2018
Even lower cost than Dahua and Hikvision, China's self-proclaimed 3rd place company, Uniview / UNV, is offering aggressive pricing including for...
Door Swing Tutorial on Jul 24, 2018
The direction a door swings might seem minor, but it can greatly impact door hardware selection. There are four basic ways a door can swing, and...
$25 Million US COPS SVPP School Security Funding Examined on Jul 24, 2018
The US Congress has authorized the School Violence Prevention Program (SVPP) to fund various security measures and training to mitigate active...

Most Recent Industry Reports

Chinese OEM Avycon Gets ADI Push on Aug 15, 2018
Who is Avycon? An American company? A Korean company? A couple of guys relabelling Chinese products? The latter is the best explanation. While...
Backboxes for Video Surveillance Tutorial on Aug 15, 2018
Backboxes are a necessity in surveillance, whether for managing cable whips, recessing cameras, adding wireless radios. But it can be confusing to...
Genetec Stratocast / Comcast 'Motion Insights' Examined on Aug 15, 2018
Comcast recently announced "SmartOffice Motion Insights", an extension to their Genetec OEMed cloud video service (covered by IPVM here). This...
SimpliSafe Violating California, Florida, and Texas Licensing Laws on Aug 14, 2018
IPVM has verified that DIY security system provider SimpliSafe, founded in 2006 and acquired in June of 2018 at a billion dollar valuation, is...
Ban of Dahua and Hikvision Is Now US Gov Law on Aug 13, 2018
The US President has signed the 2019 NDAA into law, banning the use of Dahua and Hikvision (and their OEMs) for the US government, for US...
Cut Milestone Licensing Costs 80% By Using Hikvision and Dahua NVRs (Tested) on Aug 13, 2018
Enterprise VMS licensing can be quite expensive, with $200 or more per channel common, meaning a 100 camera system can cost $20,000 in VMS...
Nortek Sues SDS, Battle Over Unpaid Bill and Cancelled Lines on Aug 13, 2018
Nortek and SDS legal battle continues. As IPVM reported, SDS sued Nortek alleging bribery and antitrust violation. However, Wave fired back at SDS,...
Uniview Intrusion Analytics and VMD Tested on Aug 13, 2018
IPVM's IP Camera Analytics Shootout featuring Avigilon, Axis, Bosch, Dahua, Hanwha, Hikvision created some ill will with a Uniview distributor who...
ADT Employees Protest ADT CEO on Aug 10, 2018
So many ADT employees were so upset with ADT's CEO speech reported on by IPVM, that ADT's CEO was forced to send a mass email to employees to...
Axis / Avigilon Legal Battle Rises on Aug 09, 2018
In what is shaping up to be high-powered, will-not-back-down battle, Axis and Avigilon are squaring off in multiple legal contests. In 2017, IPVM...

The world's leading video surveillance information source, IPVM provides the best reporting, testing and training for 10,000+ members globally. Dedicated to independent and objective information, we uniquely refuse any and all advertisements, sponsorship and consulting from manufacturers.

About | FAQ | Contact