Surveillance Codec Guide

Author: Ethan Ace, Published on Nov 30, 2016

Codecs are core to surveillance, with names like H.264, H.265, and MJPEG commonly cited. How do they work? Why should you use them? What issues may you face? In this tutorial, we examine this in-depth covering:

  • Uncompressed vs. Compressed Video
  • Inter vs. Intra Frame Compression
  • I vs P Frames
  • H.264 vs H.265 vs MJPEG
  • H.265 Emergence
  • Smart Codec Growth
  • Proprietary Codecs
  • Scalable Codecs - JPEG2000, SVC
  • Quality of Codecs
  • Codec Support in Surveillance
  • Future Codecs
  • What Codecs to Choose?

****** *** **** ** ************, **** ***** **** *.***, *.***, and ***** ******** *****. *** ** **** ****? *** ****** you *** ****? **** ****** *** *** ****? ** **** tutorial, ** ******* **** **-***** ********:

  • ************ **. ********** *****
  • ***** **. ***** ***** ***********
  • * ** * ******
  • *.*** ** *.*** ** *****
  • *.*** *********
  • ***** ***** ******
  • *********** ******
  • ******** ****** - ********, ***
  • ******* ** ******
  • ***** ******* ** ************
  • ****** ******
  • **** ****** ** ******?

[***************]

Uncompressed **. ********** *****

*********** *** ************ ***** ** **********, ** ******* *** ******* demands ***** ****** ** **** ******* *** ************.

**** ***** ** *********, ** ** ********* ************. ***** *** 3 **** ******* ** *** **** ** ************ *****:

  • *** ***** ** ****** ********* *** **** *****
  • *** ***** ****** ** ****** *** *****
  • *** ***** ****** ** ****** *** ******

** **** *** ***** ****, *** ******** **** ** *****. Let's **** ******* **** ** *****.

***** ******

**** ***** ** ***** * ***** *********** ** * ****** within * *****. *** ***** ********** *** ********* *** ***** can ** ******* *** **** ******* ******* *** *********/****.

  • **** *********, ***** ********** *** * ***** ** *** ****** (8 ****) **** * ************ *****, *** ************ ***** *** the ******* ** ******* ************ ****** ** ****.
  • ** ******, ****** *** ************ ***** ***** ******** ***** ** the ***** ** ****** ****** ** ********* *** *** ****** is *** *******. ** **** ** **,*** ****** ** ******.

**********/********* ******

*** ***** *** ******* *** *** ****** ** ********** ** they *** ************* ** *** *** ******, *********** ********** ***** ******** ***** ******:

** **** ******** *** ******, ****** ****, *****, *****, ***. *** **** ******** ** surveillance ******* (>**% ** *** *******) *** ******** ** ******* 5 *** ** *** (********** ***** **** ***** ************ ****).

Adding ** **

**** ** ******** **** ** *********** *** ******* ************ ***** can ******. **** * ***** ***** ****** ** *****. ************ it ** *** ******* ** *** *********:

*********** ***** ***** ******* ******* ** ~* **/* *** ************ 1080p/30fps *****. ** * ***, ** **** ****, *** ***** have ~***** ** ******* **** * ****** ******. ***** **** drives ******** ** *** ******, * ** ****** ************ ************ system ******* *** ** ****, ***** **** ****** **** ** storage ****** * *** ******* **** ****** **** ***** **** hundreds ** ********* ** *******.

Codecs *** ***

******* *** **** **** ** ************ *****, ********** ************ ******* of ** ******* ********* *** ** ******** *** ** **** small **********. *** **** **** ******? ******.

***** ****** *** *********** / ************* *** *** *** ** compression ** *** ******* ******* ** ******** ********* / ******* consumption.

****** ***** ***** ** ***** ***** *** *** ****** ***** is ********** ******** ** **** ****** *** ****** **** * small ****** ** ******* ******. ****** ******** ***** ** ******** the ****** ** ****** ******** ***** ******** ***** ****** **** the **** ** ******* ******, ******** ** ** ******** *** lower ******* ** ****.

Inter **. ***** ***** ***********

***** *** *** *********** ********** ** ***********: *****-***** *** *****-*****. It ** ******** ** ********** *** ************ ******* *** *** as **** ****** ********* ***********, ********** ***** ************, *** ******* risks.

  • *****-***** *********** ** ****** * ****** ***** **** *** *** across ****** (******* - *****)
  • *****-***** *********** ** ****** ******** ****** *** ****** ****** ****** (examples - *.***, *.***, ****-*)

*** ****** ******* *****-***** *********** *** **** **** **** ******* both ***** *** ***** ***** ***********.

Intra-frame ***********

*****-***** *********** **** ***** ** *** ***** ** * ****, doing *** **** ** ******** **** ** ** **** *****. Even ****** ***** ** * ****** ** ******, *****-***** *********** sees **** * ***** ** * ****, ******** *** "******." An *****-***** ***** ******'* ********** ****** **** **** *** ****** of * *****:

*** ****** ** **** **** ** ****** ** ** *************** and **** ************* ******** *****. *** ********, * *****/***** ***** stream ***** ** *****-***** *********** **** ***** *** **** *** bitrate ******* **** ~**** **/* ** ~****/*. *******, *** ******** is **** **** **** ******* *** ********* ** *** ******* between ******.

Inter-frame ***********

***** *****-***** ***********, *** **** ** *** ***** ****** *** frame *******, *** ***** ******** ******** ****** ** ******* ******** the *****. **** ** ******** ******* ***** **** ****** ******* from *** ***** ** *** ****. *** *******, ***** *** same ***** ** * ****** ******, *****-***** *********** ***** **** only *** *******'* ***.

**** ** **** ** * ***** ***** ********* ******, ******* only ******* ** *** ***** ***** *********** *********/*******. *** ********, the **** *****/***** ****** **** ***** **** ****/* **** *****, an *****-***** **** *****, *** **** **** ***/* **** *.***, a ***** **** **** ****.

*******, *** **** ******** ** *****-***** *********** ** **** ** is *** **** *************** *********, ***** *** ******** *********** *** quality ***** (******** *****).

I ** * ******

***** *** *** *** ***** ***** ** *****-***** *********** **** as *.***/*.***.

*-******

*** ***** ***** ** * ***** ***** ** ******** ** called ** *-*****, ***** *** *****-*****, *** ** *********** * full ***** ** *****, ** ******* ** **** ******* ***** in * ******. *** ******** ******* *** *-****** ** ******** to ** *-***** ********, *** (***** ** *****), ** *** (group ** ********).

** ** *******, **** ***** ***** *** *-***** ** ** outdoor ***** **** ** *** ******* (***** *** **** ****):

*-******

*-****** ********* *** **** ***** ** *** ******** *-***** ** send **** *** ******* ** *** *****. ******* *** ** small, **** ** ******* ***** ** ***** ******* ********, ** large, **** ** * *** ****** ****** **** ****** ** preset. *** * ** *-***** ****** *** "**********."

*** ******* **** ** * *-***** **** *** **** ***** can ** **** ** *** ***** ***** (***** *** **** size). **** *** ***** **** *** ****, ***** **** ******, and ****** ******* ** *** *****, *** **** ** *******.

******* ***** ******** ** *** **** *****, *** *-***** ******* can ** **** "********" **** **** *****, ***** *** **** I-frame ** **** (~** *******).

***** ***** *****

**** **** ***** *** ***** ***** ***** ** ******** ** I *** *, **** ** *, **, *** **, ****** they *** ********* ****** ** ************. **** ** ******* ******* B-frame *******, *** *** *** ***** *** ******* ** ******** decoding ****, ** **** *** ********* *** ****.

Standard ***** *****

** ****, **** *** *********** *** *.*** ******* ** *** bandwidth/storage ******** ******** ** ***** *** *** ** ******** ** H.265 ******** (*** *****).

***** ** ***** **** ** **** ***********, ********* **** ******** by *** **** ** *** ********** ************ **** ** *** or ***** *********. *******, ************* **** ***** ** ***** ******* for *****, ******** ****** *** ********* ** ***** ******.

******** ** ** *****-***** ***** ******* ** *****, *** ******** (see *****). ** *** **** ***** *** *** *** ** Avigilon, *** *** **** **** ******* ****** *** ** *******/** *****(**** ******** *** ******* ***** *** ********). ******, ***********'* ***-**************** *** ********.

Proprietary ******

************ *** *** * ******* ** *********** ******, *** **** few ** ***** *** ** *** ** ****. ** ***** analog *******, ***** *** *******, ****** *** ******* ** *** same ********* (*.*., * ***), ****** ** ****** ** *** a *********** ***** ** *** ************ ********** *** ****** *** to *** *******.

*******, ** ******* ****** ***** ** ********** *** **** **** to ******** **** ******* ***** ** * ********/*** *** ******* and ******** **. *********** ****** ******** *** ********** ** *******, managing, *** ********** ***** ** **** **** **** ** ********** to *** ***. *** **** ***** ** ***** **** *** multiple *********** ****** **** ********* **** ** ****** ************ ******.

******* ***** *********

*******'******** *** **** ****** ***** *********** ***** **** ** ***** surveillance. ********** ** ****, ***** ******** *****-***** ***********, ********* **** MJPEG *** ******** ********* *********** ******** ** ** (*** *** *****). *******, ***** ** ** ***********, **** *** *** ***** VMSes ******* **, ******* **** ** ****** *** *******'* *** VMS ** ** *** ******* ******* ** *****. ***********, *.***'* bandwidth *********** ** ********* **** ***** **** *** ********** ***** stream, ******* ******** *** **************.

Smart ******

** *** **** *-* *****, *.*** (*** *.***) ***** ****** have ****** ******, ****** ** ******* ****** ******** ******** ** standard *.***. ******* *** ***** ***** ****** ******** ******, *** generally **** *** *** **********, ******** *****. ******* ****** *** our***** ***** ******** **** ******* ** ***** ************.

***** ***********

******* ** ******** *** **** *********** ***** ** *** ****** scene, ***** ****** *********** ****** *********** *** ******** ** *** camera's ***. *** *******, ******* ** *** ***** *****, *********** could ** *** ** "***" *** *** ******** ****** ** keep ******* ****, *** *** ***** ********** *** ** *** to "****", ***** ** ** *** **** ******* ** *** white ****.

******* *-***** ********

******, ***** ****** ********* *********** ****** *-***** ******** ***** ** activity ** *** *****. ** ** * ***** *** ****** or ** ******, *** ****** ***** *-****** ************ (*, **, 20 ******* ** ****), *** **** ******** ** ******** ** the *****, ** *********** ***** ** *-***** *** ******** **** to ****** (********* * ******) *-***** ********* ** **** ** activity *********.

**** ***** **** * ****** ******** ***** *** ******* ** dynamic *-***** ********:

********

** *** *****, ***** ****** **** ******* ******** *************, ~**% at * *******, *** ** ** **%+ ** **** ******. These ****** *** **** ********* ** ***** ******, ** *-***** intervals ****** ****** *** *********** ****** *** ** *** **** of ********. *** ******** ***** ******** **** *******.

H.264 **. ***** *******

***** *.*** ** ******* *** **** ****** **** ***** ** surveillance, *** **** ***** * ****** ****** ******* ***** ******* loss ******** ** *****, *** **** ***** ** ******* *.*** is ********. ************ *.*** ** ***** ********* ****, **** ******** **********, *.*** ******** *** **** ******* quality ** *****.

*******, ***** *** **** ****** **** *** ********* *******, *********:

  • ******* **** *********** ******:** ************** ********* *** *** ****, *** ***** **** **** ******* ***********. See ***** ****** ************ *********** ************* **** ******* *** *** ******** ************* ****** ***********.
  • **** ********** ******:**** ****** ***** *** ******* ** ******* ******, ***** ***** is **** ** ****** - *************, ******, ***.
  • ******* *** ******** *** *****:******* **** *** *** *** **** ** *** *** ***, the ***** **** **** ******* ***********.

*******, ** **** *****, **** **** ***** ******* ********, *.*** has ********* ******* ******* ** ***** ** *** *****.

Scalable ******

**** ****** *** **** ******* * ****** **********. *** ********, changing **** * *** ****** ** * *** *** ***** MJPEG ** *.***, ******** ****** ******** * ********** *** ****** or *********** (*.*. **-**********) *** *** ****** ** **** ** 1MP. *******, ** **** ***** *** **** ** ****** *** stream ********** ******* ********* * *** ******, *** ********, ** you *** ******* ** * ****** **** * ***** ********* connection (*.*., ******) ** **** ** ****** ******* **** ** older *****.

* ******* ***** ** ******, ****** '********', *** ** **** automatically, ******* ****** ** ******* * *** ****** ** **-******* an ******** ******. * ******** ***** *** *********** '****' *** frames ** ********** ****** **** **** *** ** * ******. This ****** ******* ****** ** ********** **** **** ** **** as *********** ********* ********** / *** *** ****** / ****** clients.

***** *** *** **** ***** ******** ******:

  • *** ** *.*** **** ***********. *** **** **** ** **** it ******** *********** **** *** ********* ******** ** *.***. *************, very *** ************* ******* ****. **** ********** **** ******* *****-********* (sending ******** ******* ************** ** ********* **********/***** *****).
  • ********, ***** ** *********** *****, **** *** ******** ** ***********. This ** *** ***** **** ******** ************* **** *** *** phased *** ** *** *******. *** **** ******** ** ********, like *****, ** ******* *********/******* ******** ******** ** *.***, **** partially ****** ** *******.

*** *********** *** **** **** ****, **** ****** ****** ******** despite ************ ** **** ******* (** ***** ** *****) *** several *****. **** *** ******* ********** ** *.*** ***** ****** (which ******* ****** ** ** *** *** ***********) *** *.*** taking **********, *** ** ******** ** ****** * ***** ****** in ************ ******.

H.265 ******** *** ***** *******

*** *** **** *** *****, *.*** *** **** *** **** big *****, ********* ** ******* *.*** *** ****** ******** ** another ~**%. *******, ***** *** *** ******** ********** *** ********** implementation:

  • ******* *****:***** *** ****** **** ***** ** *.*** ******** ** ******* bitrate **********, ***** **-**% ** ****, *** ***** ** *.*** show **** **-**% ******* **** *.*** ** **** ******. ***** this **** *** *** ***** ******** ** ****/******** ** **** of **** **** ******, *** ******** ** *.*** *** *** as ********** ** *** ***********.
  • *********** ********:******, ***** **** ********* *.*** ********, * ***-******* *********** *******, though **** ******* ******* *** ** *** ***** ****** ** current *.*** ****** *** ******* *********/******* *******.
  • ** ***** *********** ***** ****:*******, ****** ** *.*** ******* ***** ****** ** **** ***** profile *********** ***** ***** **** ******* ** ********* ** ****. Camera ************* *** ********* *.*** ***** *****'* *.* ****, *** there **** ** ** *********** **** *** ** ***** **** profile ** ********.

** ****** *.*** ** ******** ** ******* ** ** *******, but ***** ******* ******** **** ** ******** ** *** **** 12 ******, ** *****.

*** *** ***** ***.*** ** ******* ****** ** *.*********** *.*** ******* **** *******.

Future ******

***** **** *********** ****** *** ********* ** *******, ** ** highly ******** **** *** *** ************ **** **** **** **** adoption ** ************.

*** ********, **** ********** ***** ******* ********* ******* **** ***** proprietary ******, **** ********* ******** *** / *******. *******, **** ***** ******* **** ****** ************* *** *** developers ** ********* ***** ****** ** ***** ********. ************, ***** the *********** ******* ********** ** ***** ******, ***** *** ********** with *** ******** ** ******* *.*** *********/***, *** ********** ** development ** *** ***** *********** ****** ** **** **** ********.

**** **** ********* ******'**** *** ********* ** ************* ** ************, ********** ** * *******-**** *********** to *.*** (***** *** ************ *** ******* ****). *******, ***** ****** *** ****** ** ** ******** **** manufacturers, **** ** ************ ******** ****** ** ***** ****, *** have **** ****** ** ********.

What ****** ** ******?

********** **** ****, *** **** ***** *********** *** **** *** cases ** *.*** **** ***** ***** ******* ** ***** ****** significantly ******** ********** ** *.*** **** ******* *********. *.*** *** be ********** *** **** ** ***** *** ** **** *** to *** ******* ***********. ***** ******* * ***** *** ********** applications ***** *** **** (******* ************) **** **** *****-***** ***********.

[****: **** *** ********** ********* ** ****, *** ************* **-******* in **** ********* ** ******* ********** ******** ** *.*** *** smart ******.]

Comments (8)

**** **** *****!

** ******!

***** ******!

*** ******** *****:

***** *** ****** **** ***** ** *.*** ******** ** ******* bitrate **********, ***** **-**%, *** ***** ** *.*** **** **** 15-30% ******* **** *.*** ** **** ******.

*** *** ****** ******* **** ***** ** *.*** ********, ** was ***** ***** * **** **** ** ****-* (**** *) involved? ** **, *** *** *** *** ****** **** ****-* to *.***?

*** *** ****** ******* **** ***** ** *.*** ********, ** was ***** ***** * **** **** ** ****-* (**** *) involved?

*** **, *** **** *** ******** **** ***** ** *.***. See**** ******* - *.*** ***** ********* ** **********.

********* *******, *** ********* ** *** *** ***** ***** **** is **** ******.

********* *******. ** **** *** **** ***** *** *** *****. Grate ***.

****** **** ***** ** ****** **** *** *********** ** *. 264, *** ** *** ****** ** ** *** ********** ** which ** ***** **. *** *. *** ****** **** ** the ******* *****, *** **** *** **** ********, ** *** its "******" ** ** ****** ***.

* **** * ****** ************* ** ***********

****** *** ****** *** ******* *** ** ***********!

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