VBR vs MBR vs CBR - Surveillance Streaming

By IPVM Team, Published Nov 21, 2017, 09:44am EST (Research)

*** *** ****** ***** *** * major ****** ** ******* *** *********.

*** ** ** *** *********** ******(*.*., *.*** ***.***).

********* ** *** *****, *** ***** needs ** ****** *** *** ***** stream ******* ******* ** ***** **********. There *** ***** *** ********* ***** (CBR, ***, ***) *** *** ******* feature (***** ******) ***** *********** ****** ****** *********:

VBR ** *** ** ***

******** ******* ***** ** ********* **********:

  • *** ****** ************** **** *** ****** *** *** rate ** **** *** ********* * constant ***** ******* *****
  • *** ****** ************* **** ******** *** *** **** to **** *** **** ** ** a ******* *****, *********** *** **** a ***.
  • *** ****** ************** ****, **** *** * ******** or ********* ********* ***** **** ***** quality ******* ** ****

*** **** ** ********* ******* *** how **** *** **** ***** *** bit **** ****** ** ****.

How ***** ********** ******

**** *** *** ********* *** **** dramatically ** **********:

  • ** *** **** * ****** ****** in ** * ***** **** ****** the ***, **** ** * **** simple *****. *** * '****' ******* level, * **** ** / ***** stream ***** **** *** **/* *** this.
  • ** ********, ** *** **** * camera ***** ** * **** ************, this ** * **** ******* *****. At *** **** ***** ******** ** the ***** *****, *** ***** **** 20x *** ****** ** *********, ** 4,000 **/* ** ******** *** '****' quality *****.

*** **** ******* *** *****, *** more **** (*.*., *********) *** **** to ******** *** **** ******* *****. It **** *** ****** *** '****' or '********' ***********, **** **** ****** ** *** case.

What ** *** ******?

Surveillance **********

*** **** ********* ************ ********* ** that ***** ********** *** **** ************* even ** *** **** ****** *** across **** * *** *****. *** the ****** ** *** *** ****** bandwidth *** *** ***** ******* **** suffer. *** *** ****** ** *** too **** ********* *** *** **** waste *********** ******* ** *******.

IP ****** ************** ******

****** *** ****** **** *********** *** two ***** ****** *******:

  • ******** ****:****** ************* **** ****** ******* ******** - **** ** ***** ** ******** modes ******* *** *** ***** ****. As ****, *** ********* *******' ********** in ***** ********* *** **** ************ even ** *** ***** **** *** resolution *** *** ****.
  • *********** ******:************* ***** ** *** *** *** terms *** ** *** ** ***, often ******** ***** ******** ** *********** that *** ** ********* ** **********. It ** **** ** **** * mistake ** ************* **** ***** ******** allow.

******, ** ******* ***** *************** *** explanations ** **** ****** *** ***** for ** ************* ********* ** *******, Avigilon, ****, *****, *****, *********, *********, Samsung, **** *** ****.

Recommendation - *** ***

**** ********** *** *** *** (********* called *** **** * ***) *********, combining *** **** ***** ** *** and *** ********:

  • ******** ** * ******* *** *******, MBR ***** ******* ********* *********** ** 30-70%. ** ************ **** ** ******** the ****** ** ****** ********* **** when *** ***** ** ****** (******* CBR ****** ***** ****** ** *** fixed *** ****).
  • ******** ** * ******* *** *******, MBR *** ****** ********* *********** ** 20-50%. ** ************ **** ** ******** VBR ********* *********** **** ********* (********* at *****) ** ******** * ******* bandwidth *****. ** ********* ******* **** is ****** ** ***** ******* *** dark ***** ******* ******** ***** ******* anyway. ***:******: *** ******** ********* ** ***** is ****

************, *** ****** ****** *** ** smart ****** (********* *****), ***** *** does ***. ***** *** ********* ******* of ***** ****** ** *** ***** (50%+ ** ********* ******** ************ ********* *****), **** ** ** even **** ********** ****** ** *** MBR.

Smart ****** ******* ******* (******** ***/***)

** *** **** *** *****,***** ********** ****** ******, **** **** ****** manufacturers ********* **** ** ***** *******. Smart ****** **** *********** ***** ** what ** ** *** *****, ** static ********** ***** *** ** ****** compressed/lower ******* ***** ****** ******* ****** lower ***********. ************, **** *** **** the *-***** ********, ********* ** * low ******** *** ******** ********* **** there ** ****** ******** ** *** scene.

***** ***** ****** **** ***********, *-***** interval, *** ***** ***** ********, **** require *** ** *** ** ****** and *** ********* *** **** **** CBR. ******, **** ******* ************* ****** streaming **** ** *** **** ******* smart ****** **, **** ***** ** an ******* **** * ***** ******'* web *********.

**** **** **** ******* ***** *** to ** *** ***** ******* ** smart ******, *** ** *** ***** this *** ****** *********, **** ******* reacting *** **** ** **** *** with ***** ****** *** ****.

Impact ** ***, ***, *** ***

*** ***** ********** ***** ***** *** VBR, *** *** (***) *** **** a *** ** ******. ** *********** the ****** ** ********* *** ****** 4 ****** - ******** ******, ******** with ******, ***** **** *** ***** high ******.

** *** *** *** ******** **** the ************ ** ***** ********* ********* modes, ****** ***** **** *****:

Manufacturer ************* *******

**** ***** ******** * ***** ********* of ***** ************* ******* **** ********* method:

IPVM Image

*****, ** **** ******* *** ******** configuration ******* *** **** ************.

********

******* ******** ******* ******* ** ***, with ** *** ** *** *** or *** *********. **** ********, ********* consumed **** **** ** ** *** maximum *** **** ********** **** *** max ******* ****** ** * ***.

IPVM Image

****

**** ********* **** *** ********* *** interfaces, ** **** ** ***** ******* have *** *** ************ ** ***** new ***** ***** **. **** *** and *** *** *** ******* ** the **** ********: *** **** ** cap, ***** ***** ** *** *** interface. *** ******* *** **** ****** allows *** *** **** ** **** up ** *** ***** *******.

IPVM Image

**** **** **** *** ***** ********* "true" ***. ************, ***** "******** *** rate" ******* *** ******** ** *** labeled "***."

*****

***** *** **** ** *** **** complex ************* ******* *** ******** ** any ****** ** **** ********. ** essentially *** ** *** * ** the ***** ** *********. *******, ** requires ************* *** ** *** *** 'target *** ****' *** '******* *** rate' ****** ***** *****:

IPVM Image

*** ***, ****** *** *** ******* bit **** ** **** *** ***** like **** *** ** **. *** target ******* ** *********** * ******* bit ****.

** *** **** ********* ****** ** uncapped ***, **** **** ** *** the ****** *** **** *** *** the ******* *** **** **** (** may ** *** ** **** ** 40,000 ****), ******** *** ******* ** vary ******. ******* **** ********* ***** approach **** ** **/* ***.

*******, ** *** **** ********* ***** to ***, *** *** ****** *** rate *** *** ******* *** **** close ********, ***** **** ***** ********* to **** ** * **** ****** range. ***** ****** *** ***** *** numbers ** ** ** ***** ** a **% ********** (*.*., **** *** 5500 *** ****** *** *** ************).

*****

***** ** ******* ******* *** *** CBR, ********** ** ***. ***** *** select ********** *** *** ***** ** enter ***** ***. ***** ** ** way ** ***** *** *******.

IPVM Image

******

*** ***** ****** ******* ******* *** and * **** ***** **** ***** VBR. *******, ****** **** *** ***************, Hanwha ******* ** *** ******* *** way ** *** *********** ** *** camera, **** **** ******* *** ************ varying. *** **** *******, *** *** report**** *** ******* ******** ***.

IPVM Image

*******, ***** ***** ******/******* ****** ********* CBR *** ***, **** * *** of ** ** ** **/*.

IPVM Image

*********

********* ** ******* ******* *** (*******) and ***. ***** ** ** *** to ***** *** *******.

IPVM Image

*********

********* ** ******* ******* *** *** MBR (*******). **** **** ***** ** no *** ** ***** ******* **** set ** ***, *** **** *** be *** ** **** **** ****** (24 **/* ** ******, ********* ** model). *** ****** ******** ***** ***** (Frame **** *** **** ******, *****), but ** ********* ****** ***** *** as ** ***** *******.

**** **** *** ********* ******* ****** are *** ** *** ******* ** default ** *.*** *** ***** ******* stream. ***** ****** ****** ** **** as ** *** ***** ********** ******** if *****/**** ** *** ******* **** stream.

IPVM Image

*****

***** ******** *** * *****, *** use **** **** **** **** ** 'Constrained ******** *** ****' ********. ***********, this ** * ************ ****** *** *** **** ** vary ******** - ************* **** ** minus **%. ** ****, ** ** more ** **** * *** ****. The ******** *** **** ** ****** is *** ** *** *** **** field, ***** *****:

IPVM Image

*** ******* *** **** ***** ***** acts ** *** *** / ***.

*******

******* ******* ******* *** (****** ***** VBR) *** ***. *** ******* ** constrained ** ** ***** ***** ** 16 **/*, ***** *****.

IPVM Image

*******

******* ******** *** (***** "***** *******" in *** **) *** * ******* of *** ***** **** **** "*********** bit ****." *********** *** **** ******** similarly ** ***, **** *** ****** fixing *********** ** * ******** ***** and ******* ****** ******* ** ** a ********* ***** (** ** ** Mbps ***** *****). **** *********** **** limit, *********** ** ***** **** *** vary, ***** ** *** "******" ******** below.

IPVM Image

Dealing **** *** *******

****** *** **** ******* *** *** rare, ***** *** ***** **** ****** new ****** *** ***** **** ******** systems ***** ***** *** *** ****. In **** ****, **** *** **** recommendations.

*** ** *** ***, ************* ** CBR *******, ********* *** *** ******* bit **** ****** **** ******** ** common *****. **** ***** *** ***** quality ****** **** ****. ** *** negative ****, **** **** ****** ***** you *** ******* *********. **** ***, determining *** ***** *** **** *** take *** ** *** ***** **********:

  • **** *** *** **** *** ****, avoid *** ******* ******** *** ******** waste **-**% ** ********* ****.
  • **** *** ********** ** *** ***** and *** ******* *** ****, ** trying * *** ********* ****** ** different ***** ** *** ***. **** choose.

****** ***, *** ****** ***** ** compromise. ****** *** ***** ***** *** same **/*, ***** **** ** *********: either ****** ********* ** ******** ******* at **** ****** ** *** ***. This ** *** ** **** **** and *** **** ****** *** ***** it ********** **** ********* *** ********* for ******.

Impact ** *** *** *** ** *******

**** *** *** *** ****** *********** levels, ***** ** ** ********* *** underappreciated ****** ** ***** *********. ********** of ********** ******** (*.*., ****, *****, etc.), *** ****** *** ***** ** compressed ****** *** *** **** ***********, the ***** *** ***** ********* *****.

**** ***, *** *********** ***** ** fixed, *** ********* ****** ** ****** each ***** ** ********** ** **** level. **** ***, *** ********* ** fixed, ** *** *********** ***** *** to ****** **** *** ***** *******. For ****,**** *********** ******* / *********** ********.

[****: **** **** *** ******* ** 2017-2021 ** *** ******** ** ***** codecs *** ******* ** ************ ************** and *******.]

Comments (33)

John,

You might note that at least some manufacturers use the term "CBR" for Capped Bit Rate, which is essentially MBR.

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Which ones?

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In total, at least IV, maybe more ;)

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IndigoVision might want to examine why they would (mis)use a long standing accepted industry acronym then.

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You still have like to put down IV, don't you? Actually, they only offer one form of primary encoding and it is Capped Variable.

Why not pick on Axis, whose VBR is also basically capped? I believe the Bosch encoders we tested were the same.

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"Why not pick on Axis, whose VBR is also basically capped?"

That's false. Their VBR is uncapped. Their MBR mode is capped. If you would have read the post you would have known that.

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Maybe not by your definition but when I tested Axis encoders and P-series cameras in 2012/2013, neither exceeded the bit rate set in VBR under any conditions. That would fit my definition of capped.

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With Axis, in VBR, you do not set a bitrate, period. If you were setting a bit rate, you were not in VBR mode. The old 'constant bit rate', now 'maximum bit rate' is where a specific bit rate is set.

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How old? I would have to re-read my notes on the tests, but I do recall setting a bit rate and the cameras and encoders did not exceed the setting but did throttle down substantially with good light and/or no motion. Isn't that the definition of capped bit rate?

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I take that back. On re-reading my notes, Axis' CBR capped the bit rate but allowed it to go substantially lower under better conditions. And you are correct: VBR bitrates were allowed to climb without apparent cap.

My bad on the VBR.

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Like Carl, I was under the impression the CBR is MBR.
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Can someone please give an example of a manufacturer who lists CBR as anything but constant bit rate? (outside of IndigoVision)

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John,

You are sure putting a lot of effort into this Jihad against IndigoVision. You won't test their products and dismiss them, saying no one is interested, so what is the point on whether they use CBR to describe Constrained Bit Rate or Constant Bit Rate?

This reminds me of your former dislike of Avigilon. You've apparently made peace with them, why not with IV?

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My issue is with you, not IndigoVision.

Ever since you bought IndigoVision, you've polluted IPVM with your whining about IndigoVision.

You want to be an IndigoVision fanboi, that's fine, just not on IPVM.

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Whining? LOL.

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A lot of this seems very useful to me. It may well help me deal with crowd problems encountered with the cameras in our stadium.

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This was an excellent sessions. Very valuable when trying to throttle and make your video the best it can be. We spend so much time looking at video compression with Surveillance manufactures. This helps to cut to the chase.

Thank you

Frank

Geary Technologies

Northbrook, Il.

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Thanks, Frank. You may also want to see our report Tested: Lowering Bandwidth at Night is Good. We specifically discuss and show examples of capped VBR video at night and the image quality and bandwidth differences (or lack therof).

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John I guess article need revision - especialy term MBR looks new injected term which not commonly accepted accross IT. Before you using this, when talks about encoding technology, others as Multiple Bit Rate (MBR). Which is something different. MBR in your description is VBR with MAXRATE (terminology aka ffmpeg). I guess industry not need more confusing acronyms...

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Richard, we are sticking with MBR as it emphasizes the 'maximum' element which distinguishes itself from variable bit rate.

As for multiple bit rate, I have never seen anyone use 'multiple bit rate' with the video surveillance industry.

There is no acronym or term that is going to be universally best but we think MBR is overall the strongest term to describe the use of max / cap bit rates in video surveillance systems.

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John, I have to disagree

a] I have to say that "Multiple bit rate" encoding I played around in past. However never seen MBR in CCTV before read your article. So I guessed it is my ignorance but my opinion currently is that this is something what developed some cctv forum much later.

b] It will not be problem if realy accepted in industry and not in same places when comes talks about encoding. Try google "CBR VBR MBR" at once and you will see - it looks historicaly Multiple Bit encoding are much sooner here that Maximum Bit and used by quite significant players in encoding technology.

c] VBR is in fact already MBR because in real implementations VBR is every time maxrated - never could run out of limits, cause they are of course limited by input buffer, fps etc. which can be in fact recalculated to maxrate. There is nothing as "unlimited" VBR.

BTW I guess also that stat "What stream do you preffer" is misleading because respondents not aware about it. So there are not 3 categories but just two = CBR and VBR.

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VBR is in fact already MBR because in real implementations VBR is every time maxrated

In the video surveillance industry, your assertion is simply not true. Historically most VBR implementations in video surveillance did not support a max rate. You can all them unreal or fake but that is reality.

Because of this, maximum bit rate is an important differentiator.

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If understand you right you mean that some product in industry had "button maxrate" and others does not even they was maxrated... Well, John I understand fully meaning but in such case MBR realy starts shifting among marketing terms... on other side CBR, VBR are quite well technicaly understand.. so mixing those together in one sentence is like some marketing department doing it. Instead use "VBR with MAXRATE" is much better. And year ago I doubt there was still product without maxrate when you asked repondents. Additionaly statistics about CBR/VBR/MBR in stat are then like question "Do you know that you have there maxrate knob for VBR"? So answer is that ~44% people do not know about them (38% of 38%+48%)...

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Try google "CBR VBR MBR" at once and you will see - it looks historicaly Multiple Bit encoding are much sooner here that Maximum Bit and used by quite significant players in encoding technology.

Yes, Microsoft with Multiple Bit Rate shows up first.

But I see more references from Axis camera manuals (using Maximum Bit Rate, MBR) than anything else. Do you not see these?

Microsoft is more significant, but Axis is more significant in this industry, no?

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It depends if more significantly talks about encoding or about cctv marketing. I guessed originaly that this is about technical aspects of stream codec/encoding. At least you should revise definition into:

  • MBR stands for VBR where maximum bit rate is defined by user
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We have experienced issues using VBR on some models of Dahua cameras. Specifically their 12MP fisheye domes. They have some flashing issue that happens when using VBR (MBR). We had to resort to CBR in order to keep the flashing from happening. 

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When you use VBR with a cap or max, what is the suggested cap? Here is one of my office cameras.

 

 

 

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There is a purpose for all, however I tend to recommend continuous recording with CBR.

It manages customer expectations, which is always hard with video.

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A good explanation

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Very interesting. One thing I notice is why is there streaming when the eye chart alone? 

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As an end-user this must be considered to balance proper bandwidth utilization against performance.

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I guess it all depends on target that is being view and the value.

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I was tweaking settings on my personal system and needed to search for information on this topic. This article is almost 3 1/2 years old and it was still very helpful.

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