Smart Metal / "Weapon" Detectors Tutorial

By Nikita Ermolaev, Published Jun 30, 2022, 10:15am EDT (Info+)

Conventional metal detectors, while still widely used, suffer from significant problems, most notably high false alarm rates and slow processing. In the past decade, a new generation of "smart" (or at least smarter) devices have emerged that aim to solve these problems.

IPVM Image

****** **** ********, **** ********* *** technologies ** ********* ******* *********, ***** advantages *** *************, ***** **** ********* using ****.

**** ******* *** *********** ******** ** people-screening *******. *** **********, ***** ****:

Problems **** ************ ***** *********

************ ***** ********* **** * ****** of ********:

  • ********** ** *************** ******* ******* *** benign ***** *******, ********* ****, ******, etc.
  • *********** ** ************ *** ******** ** the ***** ***** ********
  • ********* ** ****** ***-******** *******
  • ************, **** ******-*********

*** ***** ************ **** ** ** unpleasant ******** **********, **** **** ***** and * **** ****** ** ********** and ****** *********** ********. ********, *** inability ** ****** ***-******** ******* ** becoming **** ******** **** *** ********* of ********* ***-******** "***** ****," ********* ********-**-**** **** *** **-******* guns.

Problems **** ********** **** **** ********

******* ** ***** *********, ** **** scanners ****** **** * ****** ** shortcomings, *********:

  • ***-**-*-**** *** **** (**-****** *****) *******
  • ******* * ****** ** ***** ***** in ** ********* ****
  • ***** ****** ** ****** *******, **** as *******, ***.
  • ********* (** * ***** ** ******** of ********* *** *******) *********
  • ***** *** * ****** ********* **** metal *********

*** *********** ***** ******** ** ******* adoption ** *** *********, ********* ** airport ********.

Problems **** *-*** **** ********

*-*** **** ************ *** **** *********** ** *** millimeter-wave **** ******** **** ********** ****** and ******* ********.

New ************ - ***** ******** *** *******

*** *** ************* ** ***** ****** solutions ***** *** *********** ** *** technologies, *** ****** ****************, ******* ********* imaging, ***. ****** **** *** **** complex *** **** *** ********* ** solving *** ****** ** ************ *********, these *** ************ ***** **** ** magnetic *** ******* **********.

Active **. ******* ************

*** ************ ********* ******* (***** *********, MW, *** *-*** **** ********) *** active *******, ******* **** ****** * strong ******** **** *** ******. * metal ******** ********* * ****** ******** field **** ******** *** ********* ******** field **** *** ******. ******* ******* (body ********) ********** *** ****** *** analyze ****** * ********* ** *********** wavefront **** *** ********** **** * subject.

*******, *** ************ ** ******* ********* can ** ****** ****** ** *******. The ********** ******* ***** *** ***** of ******* ** **** ******* ******* do *** ***** *** ***** ****** them, **** ********* '****' ** '**** at' ************.

* ****** ** ** ******* ** a ******* ******, ** ** '****' and ***** ** *** ***** **** no ************. ****** *** ******, ** the ***** ****, *** ******** ** active ******* - **** ***** *** space ****** **** ** *** ***********.

***** *** *****-**** ******* ******* *** active ************ **** **** ** ********* below.

Active ********

*** ******* ********** ******* *** *** generation *** ************ ****** ******** ********** is ** *** **** ********, **** more ******* ********** **********, **** ** one ********* ******* **********,*** ******* ********** $*** ******* ** ****.

******** ************** ****** ** *** *** short ** * ****** *********** ** active ******** ****** *********, **** **** scientific ****** ********** ** (*,*,*). *** ** *********** ** * 3x3 ******, ***** *** ****** ** the ****** **** *** ******** ******** in ********* **********, ********* ** *** direction ** *** ******** ******** *****.

*** ** ********* ** ****** ********** (size, *****, ************, ***.) *** ** external ********** **** ** *** ********* of *** ******** ***** *** *** object's ***********. ** ********* **** **** MPT *** ** **** *** ****** characterization. ********, ***'* ******** (** *********) behavior ** ***************** ** ** *** ******'* "*********".

IPVM Image

*****'* '*** *************** **** *** ****** ************** *** describes *** ****** ** ** ****** system **** (*) ********* * ****** magnetic *****, (*) ********* ** ******'* magnetic ********, (*) **** * ************** module ** ******* **** ****** (**** MPT) ***** **** ******* * ******* response, *** (*) ********** ** ****** based ** *** ****-*** *** ******.

***** **** *****,********************************* * "***** ***** ********" ***** on ***** ************* **** ********** **** *** Electromagnetic ******* ***** ** *** ********** of **********.

***** ********* *** **** *** **** as ****, *** **** ********* ** the ******** *** ****** *** ********** technology ****** ***** *******.

Passive ********

* ******* ******** ********* ****** ******** Earth's ******** ***** *** ******* ******* by ********* * *****'* ********** ****** by ****. **** ****** ** *** external ******** *****, **** ******* *** be ********** (** ****** *****, ****** magnets **********). *** ****** ** ***** an ****** *** ** ************* ** ********* ** ******** ************.

********* **** ****** ************ **** * higher ******** ** ** ******** ******** field. ************* ********* (*** ********* ********** iron) **** *** ******* ************ -******** ** * ****** ************ ** purified **** ** ~***,***. *** *******, *** ******** ******** permeability ** ******** (***** ** * vacuum) ** *.*****.

**** ** ****** ******* **********, ** creates *** *** ******** ***** *** thus ** *** ********* ** ******** field. ******** ***** ***** *** **** to ********** **** - *** ****** the ***** *** ******** *** *****. The ********** ** *** ******** ***** with ******* ** ********* ************ ******* is ***** *****:

IPVM Image

******* ********** ********* *** ******** ******* and ******* *** ******** ** *** magnetic ***** ****** *** ******** ****. By ********* *** ********** ** *** registered ******** *****, *** *** ****** an ******'* ******** ***************, ****, *** shape, ********* ********* ***'* ******.

*******, ***** *** ***** ******* ******** techniques. *** *******,**** *** **** ** **** ** passive *********, ********* ** ******** *******' ******.

*********,******* ***, ********** ********** ******* ***** *********.

IPVM Image

*** **********, ***:

Active **. ******* ********

****** *** ******* ******** ************ **** a ****** ** *********. **** ******* possible ********** ** **************, *********** ** installation, ***** **************, ***.

******* ******** ************ *** ****** **** ferromagnetic *********, ** *** ******** **** the ***** ********* ** **** ***** smaller **** **** ************* *******. *****, passive ********* *** ********* ****** "*************" detectors ** ********* *** "********** *******."

****** ************, ** *** ***** ****, can ****** *** ***** ** ******. Although **** ** ******* **** **** or ********* ***** ***** ** ****, the **** ** *********** *** ***-************* items *** ** ****** ** * limitation ** ******* *******.

****** ******* *** ***** ******* ****** about ** ****** ******* **** *** use **** ******** ***** ** *** the ***********. *** *******, ******* ** using **** *** ********* ** ******** field ** ******* ******* **, ****** systems *** *** ******** ***********. ******** frequencies ** ******** ****** ***** **** information ** ** ******** ***** *** object. ******* *******, ** *** ***** hand, *** ***** ** *** ********* of *****'* ******** *****, **** ******** the ****** ** *********** **********.

************, *******, ** **** ******** **** passive *******, ** **** *** ********* be *******-******* (*********) ** ***** *** covert ************ (******* *** *** *********), and/or *******-**** ******* (*********). ****** ******* typically ******* **** *****.

******** **** ****** **** ****** *******, passive ******* ***** **** ************-******* ***********. Proximity ** *** ****** ***** **********, such ** ********* *****, ***** *** create ************* ** *** ******** *****, can *********** ***** ***** ******.

*******, *** ******* ******* *** ******* more ******* ****** ********** *** ***** filtering, ** *** ******** ******** **** the ****** *** ** ****** ******** to ** ****** ******. ***** *** increasing ******-**-***** ***** ***** ** * 'cleaner' ******, ** *** **** ***** the **** ** *** ******, ** more ******** ** ****** *** *** system ***********.

Active *******

*** ******** *** ******** **** **** developed *** ****** ******* ************ (**** as ** **** ********). ***** *** basics ** *** ******** *** ***** the **** - ********** *** ****** and ******* *** **********, * ****** of ************ **** ****, **** ** new ******* ****** *** **** ********* signal ********** *** ************** **********.

IPVM Image

*******,******* *******'* ********, ** * ****-******* ****** **** has * **** ****** ***** ** transmitters *** ********* ****** ** ******** square ***** *** **** ********** *******. This ********** ****** *** * ******* increase ** ******** ****** -********* ** ********** **********, ** ************ *** ** ********* in **** ************* *** ********** ** 2034 ********* ******** ****** ** "***** centers." **** * **** ****** ** sampling ****** ******* ** **** ******* resolution.

******* *******'* *********** ** *** ***** of **********: ** ***** ***-******* ********** and ****-********* **** **********, *** *** screen ****** ** *****-***** **** *****. This ** * *********** *********, ** it ****** ***** *** ****** ** high ******* **** *****, ********* ** the*******'* ******.

*** **********, ********** ******* ******* ********* *******.

***** & *********** ******** *** ****** ******* ********** with ****&* *** ********. *** ****** ****** ** * walk-through ****** **** *****-**** ********* *** transmitters. *** ********* ********, *** ****** breaks **** *** *********** ****** **** "voxels" (***** ****** ** **) *** reconstructs ** ***** ***** ** *****. Moreover, *** ***********, *** ****** **** only **** ** *** ********* ******** after *** ********* ********* ** ************* rules *** **** *********.

***** *** ***** ************ ** *** field ** ****** *******, ************** ****(***** ** ***** ****** *** ** magnetic-based ***** *******), **** *** *********-******* metasurface ********* *** *********. **** ********** was ********* ** **** ********** ** a***** *. *****'* *****, ** **********'* ***, **** ****,**** ****. *** ***** ****, *******,

Passive *******

******* ** *** ******* ******** ********, the ******* ******* ******** **** *** include *** ******* ** *** *********** and ***** ************ *** ******'* *** emissions *** *** *********. ********* *************** waves **** * ****** ** ********** for ****** *********, ********* *** ****** and *** *********** *********** *** **** materials.

*** ********* ****** ** *** **** of *** *************** *************** *.* *** *** ** ****** ** *************** *** ***-******** ******.**** ***** *** ***-******** ******, **** are ******** *** ***** ****** *** can ** **** *** ********* ********.

IPVM Image

**** *** ***** ***** ** *** infrared ********, *** ******* **** *** above ** **** ********* *****. ********* imaging-based ****** *************** ** ***** *********** ** *** temperatures ******* ** ****** *** * body. *******, ** ********* ******** ** terahertz ********* ** **** ******** *** very *** *********** ************ ** *** terahertz ******, ***** ***** **** ********* transparent ** *** ***** *** ****** for *********** ******* * ***** **** and * ********* ******.

************ * ** ******* **** ****** passive ********* ******* *** ******** *********, loss **********, ***. **** ** *** company's ******** *** ***** *****:

IPVM Image

Terahertz **. ******* *******

** * ***** ******, ******* ******* and ********* ******* *** **** ******* and, ** **** ******, **** *** (both *******, *********** ** *** ********* range), *** ***** ********** **** *********** differences ******* ** ************** *****-****.

*** *******, ***** *** ******** ** transparent *** ********* *****, ** ** not *** *********** **** ** ************ thermal ******* **** **** ****** *********** coefficients, ********* ** ******** ******* (*,*). ****, *** ******* ******* ******** the *********** ** *** ******** *** are ********* ** *********** ********** ** its ***********, *** ** ******* **** different *******. *********, *** **** ****** object ************** ***** *** ** ** a ******* ******* *** ****** *** the ********. ********* **** *** **** the **** **********, ** ** ***** for *********** *********** ******* *** ******* themselves.

* ******* ***** ********* **** ******* camera ********** ******** ** *** ********* imaging:

IPVM Image

*** ***** ** ***** **** ***** ***** ** ******** **. **.

*** ******* ******* ****** *** ******* limitation **** ******** - *** ******* the ********, *** **** ******** **** be **********, ** *** ************ *********** (governs *** **** **** *** ** transferred ******* ********) *********. *********, *** outer ***** ** *** ******** **** have **** ******** ** ***********.

** *** ***** ****, * ******* camera ****** (*) ****** ***** **********, (2) ****** ******* ***********, *** (*) longer ***** ******** ** ********* *******. Notably ****** * ***** ********** **** not ****** **** ** ***** ********* rates, ** ******* ****** ***********.

******, **** ******* *** ********* ******* share ** ********* ********** - **** are **** ** ****** ********* ******* only ****** ******* *********** ** *******. Thermal *********** ****** ** * ****** when **** ****** *** *** **** have *** **** ***********, ***** ** turn ***** ** * **** ** contrast ** *** ***** *****. * graphic ***** ***** ******* *** ********* images ***** **** * **-****** ********* with ********** ********:

IPVM Image

*** ***** ** ***** **** ***** ***** ** ******** **. **.

**** ** ** ********* ********** ** both ************ ** ****** *** ***** threat ******* ** **** **** ****** the ****** ***** *******.

Active **. ******* *******

******* ** ******** **********, ****** *** passive ******* ************ ***** *****-**** ** implementation.

****** ******* ******* ************, *** ****** approach **** *** ****** ** *** temperature ********** ******* ******* *** *** distinguish **** ***** ** ***** ***** and *********** *************** **** ***** ******* equilibrium.

*******, ****** ******* ********** ***** * greater ******* ********** **** *** ******** the ********** ** ******* ****** **************.

Magnetic **. *******

*** **** ********* ** *** ******* technologies ******** ** ******** ** ******* the ******* ** **** *** **** metallic *** ***-******** ****** *******.

**** ******** *** ******* ************ ******* some ****** ********** *** ***** ************, however, ******* ************ *** **** ***** by ******* **********. **** **** ** the *********** **** ******* ************ **** to ******** *** ********** **************. ******** measurements, ** *** ***** ****, ** not **** * ******* ***********.

******* ************ **** ** *** *********** in ***********/********** ********** ** *********** ***********, however, ***** *************** *** **** ****** than ******** ********** (********** **** **** ***** ***********). *******, ** **** * ****** is ********* ** ******* ****** (* book, * ****, ***.) ******* ************ can **** ****** ********* *** ****** objects ******* ********-***** ******* ****** ******** a ******** ******** **** *** ******.

*** ********** ** *********** ****** ******* in ***** ********* ** ***** ********* objects ******* **** **** ******** ** school ********, ***** ******** ***** ********* full ** *****, *********, ***. **** believes **** ******* ************ ******** ** detect ******* ** **** **********.

******, ****** ******* ************ *** ** considered ********* ** *** ******, *** to *** *************** ***** **** ****. Although ***** ******* ****** **** * negative ****** ** ***** ******, *** topic ** ********* ** *** ** sensitive *** **** ******. ******** *******, on *** ***** ****, ******* ***** health-related ***********.

Common **********

** * ****** ** ********, **** imaging *** ******** ************ **** *** capability ** ******** * ******.

Common ***********

***** ****** ** ********* ***** *** a ****** ********** ** **** **********. IPVM's ******** ****** **** **** **** OPENGATE *** ***** ******* ******** ***** alarms ** ***-****** ******* *** ** the ********** ** ***** **** ****** items. *** ********** ***:

******* ************ **** *** ***** ***** due ** ******* ****** ******* *****.

**** ** **** ****** ****** ** another ****** ********** ** *** *** generation ******** *** ******* ************. *** penetration ***** ** *** ****** ******* technologies ** *** ********** ** ***** cavities *** ******** ******** **** * metal****** *** ** ****** ** * response **** * ******'* ****** **** ** * ******** ********. For *** **** ****** ******, *** can ****** *** ******** ***** ********* (in **** **** *** ********* ** more ********* *** **** ******** ** less ********) ************** ******** *****-**** ***** *********.

IPVM ** ****** *** ********

*** ********** *** ************* ** *** technologies ***** *** ********* ***** ****** on *********** ******** ***** ** *******, publications, *** *********' ***********. ***** ***** might ** **** **********/************* **** *** missing, ** ** **** *** **** to ******* **** ***** *** ******* we **** *** ****** *** ********* mentioned ** *** ********.

**** ***** ** **** ****, *******, some ** *** ******** *** ** the *&* ***** (*** *******,******* ******* ** **** ********* **** for ** ********) *** **** ********* ****** ** IPVM's ********* *** ** *** **** us ** **** ***** ******* - see***** ******* ** **** ********* ** Its ****** ********* **********.

Comments (10)

"********, *** ********* ** ****** ***-******** objects ** ******** **** ******** **** the ********* ** ********* ***-******** "***** ****," ********* ********-**-**** **** *** **-******* guns."

****, *** *** ****** *******, **** a *** ** ***** *** *** more *****-**** **** **** "******* *****". Ghost **** *** ** ****** *********** from ** ********* ***** ** *******, but **** ***** *** ***** *******. Even ****** *** ****** ******* ******* to **** ***** **-******* ************ *******, the ******* ****** ******** *** ** these **** *** **** ****** ** the ***** ** ** ******* **** would ** ******** ** ******* * barrel **** *** ********* ** ****** generated ** * ****** ****** *** have **** ****** ** **** ** a ***-******** ******. ***** **** *** primarily ********* *** ****** ******** ** take ******** ********** **** ***** **** to **** * ******** ****. **** commonly ***** *** ****** (**: **-** or **-**), **** **** ******* **** would/should ** ******** ** *** ****** technology.

*** **** ********* ** *** ******* technologies ******** ** ******** ** ******* the ******* ** **** *** **** metallic *** ***-******** ****** *******.

*** *** **** ********* ** *******-***** systems ** *** ******* *** *** operator ** *** *** **** ***** the ******* ****, ***** ****** **** to ****** ********** *** ********* ******* over ****. ******** ******* *** **** you ***** ** ****** ** *******, but ** ** **** **** ****** for *** ******** ** ********** ******* what *** ****** *********** ** * threat/signature *****, *** *** **** ***** alter ******** ** ********** ********** ** better ***** ** *** **********. *** evolv ***** ****** *** * **** example, **** *** *** ****** ******** on *** ****** **** *** ********** for *******, *** **** ***** *****, but ** ***'* *** ** ****-**** how ** ** ****** ********* *** hinge, *** *** ****** ****** ***** improve *********** (**: ******* *** ********* through ** * ********* ***********). ******* that ** * ***** ***** ****** and *** *** ***** *** ****-**** results ***** *** ******** *** *** sensor *** ********* ****** ** * more ********** ***.

** ****** ****** ********* *** ******* to **** ******** ******* ** *** open, ***** **** * *********** ******** for ****** *** *****.

* ******* ** *** ** ******* the **** ** ******** ************ *** quickly ******** *** ****** ** *************** when ** ***** ** *****-*** ******* detection ************ *** ********. *** **** decade-ish *** **** * *** ** new ************ *** ******** **** ***** that ******* ** ***** ********** **** without *********** ******** ** ***********, *** most (***?) ** ***** **** ****** to ******* ** *** *******.

***** *** * *** ** ****** we *** ** **** ******** ********** to ******* ** ***** ** ********* more *********** ********* **** **'** *** in *** **** ** ***** ** detecting ********* *******, ********** ***** **** might **** **** ********** ******* ***** in * ***. *** **'** ***** very **** *** **** ***** **** to **** ** * ********* ****** as * ******** *** ** **** us ********* **** ** ********** ***** are ***** ******* **** * ********. We *** *** **** ** *** point **** *** ***** ********* *** routinely ********** ** **** ********** ************, and ***** *** ** ********** **** the ********** ** ********* **** ****** to ****** ****.

IPVM Image

Agree: 4
Disagree
Informative: 5
Unhelpful
Funny

* ******* **** *** *** ********** right.

Agree
Disagree
Informative: 1
Unhelpful
Funny

********* **********, *** ******** ** ******* son ***** *********.

Agree: 1
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

**** ********** ************ ** *** ******* hype ***** ** *** **** *'** seen. ***** ** ** ****? *** I *** **?

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

*** **** ** **'* ****** **** to ***** ***** **, * **** found ** ** *** ********* ***** a ****** ***** ****** *** "******* hype *****"

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

** **** ** **** **** ****-**** active *-*** ******** ****** ** * room **** ** ****** ******* **** Cuban ***************.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny: 1

***** ******* ******** ******* ********* *** submarines *** * ***** ** *** back ** ****, *** ******** ***** of *** ***** ** **** **** and ********** ****, ********** ********, **** large. * ** **** **** ********** power ****** *********** **** ***** ** unimaginable ** *** ************, *** * still ******* ****, ** **** *** original ********, ******** ** ********* *** small ******* ******* ** ** ******** detected, *** **** ******* *********** *** still ** ** *****. ****** ******* seem, ** **, ** ***** **** consistently ******** *******.

Agree: 2
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

**** ** **** ** ***, **** has **** *** **** ***** **** true, ** **** *** ********* ****** with ********* ****** ********* ******* ********* or **** ****-******** ***** ********* **** be ******** *******. *** ******* **** "mass-boxing" ********** ** **** ** *** create * *** ** ******. *** CEIA ******** *** **** **** ****** the *** *** ***** (**** ** own ************) *** *** ** ********* security ******** "********" **** *** ***** was "********" * ***** ** * belt, *** *** ***** ************* *** technology ****** *** ***** *** *** proper ******* ** *** *** *** alert.

*** ******** *** ******** **** ******* to *** ****** ** *** ******** officer *** ** *** ****** ******** become ****** ******* ** * ******. Also, ** *** ****** *** ****** security *********, *** ***** ** ***** lack ** ****** *** ***** ******* to *** ******* ******** ******** *** are ******** ******* **** **** ********* payroll *************, ***** ** **** ******** accounts ******* ***** **** ** * better ******* ** ******* ********* **** technology. * **** *********** *** ******** at ******* ****-******* ********* *** ************* throughout *** *********, *** *** **** been ******** ******* ** ********* ********* measures **** ** ******** ** *** importance ** ********** ******* *** ******** and *** *******. **** ****** ** overlooked.

** *** **** ** ** *********, there ** ** *** **** ********** can ******* *** *******'* "****", *** perceived ********, ** ********** ********, ** they **** ******* *** ********, ***** is *** ****** *** *******'* **** from *** ******, ** **********. *'** personally ******* *** ***** *** ***** into ********** **** ********, *** **************, I **** **** ********** ******* ** being ** ***** *** *** ************ inability ** **** ******** ******* "* walked ******* *****."

************, **** *****'* ******** **** ** keep *** ******** ******** ********* ** business, ****** ******* **** ******** ******** to ******* *** **********. **** ** those **** ******** ******** ***** ***** time (*** *********' ****) ** ***** cell ****** *** *** ********** ** it **, *** ************* ******* *****'* help *******. ******** ** ***, **** regard ** ****** ********* *********, **** always ** * "***** **" *********. The *****-**** ***** ********** ****** *** customers ******* *** ***** ****-**** ******* isn't ******** ******... ******* ** ***** to *** **** *** ***.

**********, ********* ** ***** * ******-**-****** transaction. *** ****-******** ** * ***, which ********** ** **** ** ******* as *** ***** ****'* ******* ** actually ****** * ***** ****** **** a *******, ** ******** * *** of ****** ** **** ** ******** personnel.

Agree
Disagree
Informative: 4
Unhelpful
Funny

**** ******** **** ** *****:

"********, *** ********* ** ****** ***-******** objects ** ******** **** ******** **** the ********* ** ********* ***-******** "***** ****," ********* ********-**-**** **** *** **-******* guns."

*****, *** **** *** ************ ******** to ** "***** ****" ******* **** are ****-***** *** ********* **** ****** numbers, ***** *** ****** *** *********** - ***** * ***** *** **** committed - ** *** ******* ** found. **** *** *** "********* ***-********", far **** **. *** **** **** pushing **** ***** *** ****** **** the ****** ******* *** ******. *** exactly *** **** ******** ****** ** information ** *** *******.

******, **** *** ******* ******** ** a ********** ** ****-***** ******** ** not ******* ********** **** ** **** a ******* ***** ********, *** ****-********** 3D ******* ****. ***** *** **** proof-of-concept **** ********. ** ****** *** look *** * **** "***** ***", and **** *** **** **** ** a ***** ** ***** ********* ****** into **** *** ** ******** **** a ******** *******. (***:***** ****

***** ***** ************ ** *** ****** the **** ** *** *****, **'* disappointing ** *** **** ************ ** even * ***** ******.

Agree: 5
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

* *********** ******* **** * **** the "***** ***" *** ** *** article. *** *** ********** *******.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny
Login to read this IPVM report.
Why do I need to log in?
IPVM conducts reporting, tutorials and software funded by subscriber's payments enabling us to offer the most independent, accurate and in-depth information.
Loading Related Reports