PTZ Versus Fixed MP Camera Shootout

Author: Benros Emata, Published on Apr 30, 2011

As megapixel surveillance cameras become mainstream, many have begun questioning the value of PTZs. The main criticism of PTZs is that they can only provide good image quality by 'looking' at a very small area at any given time. Megapixel cameras, on the other hand, can see 'everywhere' at all times. With their significantly increased resolution, operators can simply digitally zoom to magnify any area of interest. With this approach, the megapixel camera provides the best of both worlds - capturing details at a distance while recording video across large areas.

But how true is this really? What drawbacks does a MP camera have compared to a PTZ and in what scenarios?

In this report, we share our test results of a shootout between a PTZ camera and 4 megapixel cameras (ranging from 720p to 5MP from Axis, IQinVision, Sony and StarDot). We wanted to see what tradeoffs would be revealed if we tested these cameras at the same time and in the same space.

We took our 5 camera test rig and set up at a moderately sized public parking lot. See the test location below:

We then set up a series of tests (during the day, twilight and nighttime) where a subject would move across the covered area. We tracked the subject with our PTZ camera and then contrasted the PTZ's resulting image with that of the megapixel cameras. The overview image below shows the dimensions of the test area and the key testing points we selected:

We then conducted competitive analysis for various scenes to rate and compare the relative performance of each camera. Here are the 15 scenarios we analyzed:

  • PTZ Capture Area vs MP Capture Area
  • Daytime Comparison by Distance / HFoV - 5MP vs PTZ
  • Nighttime Comparison by Distance / HFoV - 5MP vs PTZ
  • Midday Even Lighting (Far Subject)
  • Midday Even Lighting (Mid Subject)
  • Midday Even Lighting (Near Subject)
  • Twilight Harsh Lighting (Far Subject)
  • Twilight Harsh Lighting (Mid Subject)
  • Twilight Harsh Lighting (Near Subject)
  • Nighttime Lighting (Far Subject)
  • Nighttime Lighting (Mid Subject)
  • Nighttime Lighting (Near Subject)
  • Daytime License Plate Capture (Far Subject)
  • Daytime License Plate Capture (Near Subject)
  • Nighttime License Plate Capture

We found the results, and especially the tradeoffs, to be fascinating.

Readers of this report should understand the fundamentals of PTZ cameras and megapixel cameras. For background, review our training on PTZ Camera fundamentals and our megapixel camera shootout at this same parking lot.

** ********* ************ ******* ****** **********, **** **** ***** *********** the ***** ** ****. *** **** ********* ** **** ** that **** *** **** ******* **** ***** ******* ** '*******' at * **** ***** **** ** *** ***** ****. ********* cameras, ** *** ***** ****, *** *** '**********' ** *** times. **** ***** ************* ********* **********, ********* *** ****** ********* zoom ** ******* *** **** ** ********. **** **** ********, the ********* ****** ******** *** **** ** **** ****** - capturing ******* ** * ******** ***** ********* ***** ****** ***** areas.

*** *** **** ** **** ******? **** ********* **** * MP ****** **** ******** ** * *** *** ** **** scenarios?

** **** ******, ** ***** *** **** ******* ** * shootout ******* * *** ****** *** * ********* ******* (******* from **** ** *** **** ****, **********, **** *** *******). We ****** ** *** **** ********* ***** ** ******** ** we ****** ***** ******* ** *** **** **** *** ** the **** *****.

** **** *** * ****** **** *** *** *** ** at * ********** ***** ****** ******* ***. *** *** **** location *****:

** **** *** ** * ****** ** ***** (****** *** day, ******** *** *********) ***** * ******* ***** **** ****** the ******* ****. ** ******* *** ******* **** *** *** camera *** **** ********** *** ***'* ********* ***** **** **** of *** ********* *******. *** ******** ***** ***** ***** *** dimensions ** *** **** **** *** *** *** ******* ****** we ********:

** **** ********* *********** ******** *** ******* ****** ** **** and ******* *** ******** *********** ** **** ******. **** *** the ** ********* ** ********:

  • *** ******* **** ** ** ******* ****
  • ******* ********** ** ******** / **** - *** ** ***
  • ********* ********** ** ******** / **** - *** ** ***
  • ****** **** ******** (*** *******)
  • ****** **** ******** (*** *******)
  • ****** **** ******** (**** *******)
  • ******** ***** ******** (*** *******)
  • ******** ***** ******** (*** *******)
  • ******** ***** ******** (**** *******)
  • ********* ******** (*** *******)
  • ********* ******** (*** *******)
  • ********* ******** (**** *******)
  • ******* ******* ***** ******* (*** *******)
  • ******* ******* ***** ******* (**** *******)
  • ********* ******* ***** *******

** ***** *** *******, *** ********** *** *********, ** ** fascinating.

******* ** **** ****** ****** ********** *** ************ ** *** cameras *** ********* *******. *** **********, ****** *** ******** ***** ****** *************** ************ ****** ******** ** **** **** ******* ***.

[***************]

Key ******** *** ***************

********* ******* ** *** ******* ******** ***** ** *** ***** of ***** *** ****** **** ** ******** ********** *** *** provide. ** ** ****** ** *******. ****** ** *** ******** are ****** **** **** ********* ****. *** ***** ** ********* is ********. ***** *** **** **** ** ** ** *** improved ***** ****** ******** *****, ** ** ***** ******* ***** to **** **** *** *******. *** ********, ***** *** *** captured ****** ******* ** **** *** **** **** *** ******, the ********* ******* ********* ** ******* **** ** ****. **** disparity ******** **** ****** ** **** * ********** ****** *** (~50 *******) *** *** ********* *******. *** ******** ******* ***** have **** *** ***** ******** ** * ** **** ***** lens ** * *** ****** ****** (*** *** ***** **** angle **** ******* *** *** ******* *** **** ******* *** a **********).

**** *** **** *******, **** *** *** **** ***** *** using ********* ** ***:

  • *** **** ** ** ******* ** ****** ***** - *** 300 ****** **** (** ** ****** ******). **** ** **** for ******* ***** *** ***** ** ******** ** * ***** parking ***, ***********, **** *****, ***. ** **** *****, *** MP *** ******* ******* ***** ** ******* *** ******** ******** but **** *** ***** ******* ** ******** *** ***** **** at *** *****.
  • *** **** ** ** ******* ** ********** ***** - *** a *** ******** ****** **** (** * *** ******* ****** meters) *** *** *** ****** ******* ****** ****** ****** ** people, **** *** ******. *** **** **** ** **** *** MP ****** **** ******* ********** *** ******* ****** ***** *** PTZ **** ******* ******* ****** ** ******* ** ** ******* at * ******** **** ***** ** ******** ** *********.
  • *** ** *** **** ** **** ** ******** ******* / control *** ***. **** **** ** * ******* ******** *** using ***** ******* **** ****. ********* ****** ***** *** ***** camera ********** ******.

*** ***** ***** ********* *** *** ******** ** * ******* 10 ****** *****:

PTZ ** ** ******* ****

*** ***** ***** ******** * ****** ************** ** *** ******* disparity ******* *** ***'* ********* ******** **** *** *** ** camera's ****** ******** **** ******** ** *** ****. ** ******* coverage **** ** *** ************ **** **** *** ******* *** provide ****** ** ******* ***** *******.

Day ********** ** ******** / **** (*** **. ***)

*** ***** ***** ****** **** *** ********** *** ******** ******* the *** ****** ********** ****** * ***** ****. ****** *** the ********* ******'* ***** ******* ******** ************* ** *** *** widens *** **** *** ***, ***** *** ******* ****, *** continue ** ******* * ********** ******** *****. ********, **** ********** presumes *** *** ** ******** ******** * *******.

Night ********** ** ******** / **** (*** ** ***)

*** ***** ***** ***** *** **** ******** **** *** **** fundamental *********, *** ** *****:

Midday **** ******** (*** *******)

** **** ********, *** ** ******* *** ********* ****** **** our ***** ******* ~***** *** ***** *** ********** *** (****) is ~*****. *** *** ** ********* ****** **** *** **** human *******. *** ***'* **** ** **** ******** ** ~*.***. Note **** *** ***** ** ******** ******* *** ** *** relative ******** ** *** ***** ****** ** ***.

***** ** *** ********* ******** (******** *** **** ***** ****):

*** ** ******* ******* ****** ****** ** **** *****, **** ppf ******* **** ******* **** (****) *** ***** (***). * human ******* ** **********, *** ** ************** ** ********. ** contrast, *** *** ****** ********* **** *** ******* ******* ** a **** ***** ** ******, ********* * *********** ******** ** the ********** ** **************. **** ****, *** ** ************ *******, shadows ****** *** *******'* **** *** ******** ******* *** ***** of ******** *** ********** ******.

Midday **** ******** (*** *******)

** **** ********, ** ******* *** ****** ** ** *** subject ~***** ***, **** * ************* **** ** ~*****. *** PTZ ** ****** **** *** **** ******* ** ** ********* ~5ft ****. **** **** ******** ********** *** **** *** *** particularly ***********.

***** ** *** ********* ******** (******** *** **** ***** ****):

** **** ***** **** ** *** ** ******* *** **** to ******* ****** ****** ** *** ***** ******* *** ****** identification. **** ** *** **********, ***** **** *** *** ****** at **** **** ** **** ******* ~**.**** (****) ** ~***** (5MP). ** ********** ** *** ******** '***' ****, *******, ** can ***** ** **** *** **** *** ******* *** **** a ****** ****, ** ******* * ***** ***** *** *****, and ** ******* *** * ****** ***** ** ****** *** build. *** ***, ** *** ***** ****, ** *** ************** narrow *** ****, ******** ************ *******, ****** ************** ****** ******.

Midday **** ******** (**** *******)

** **** ********, ** ******* *** ****** **** *** ***** subject ******* ~**** ***, **** * ************* **** ****. *** PTZ ** ****** **** *** **** ******* ** ** ********* ~5ft ****, ********* * ********** ~******. **** **** *** ** lighting ********** *** ***** ** ********** *******.

***** ** *** ********* ******** (******** *** **** ***** ****):

** **** ****** ***** *** ** ******* *** ********* ** deliver * ***** ** ****** ********** ** *** *** ******. The *** (**** *****) *** *** *** (*******) *** *** best ******** ** ****. *** *.*** (*******) *** **** (**** CH140) *** *** ** '*****' ** *** ***** ** *******, but ***** ****** ** ****** *** ******* ****** *** *******'* face/body. *** *** ******** *** ******* ***** ** ****** ***** all *** ****** ** *** *********, ****** ************** ****** ******. Note ****, *** ** ************ *******, ******* ****** *** *******'* face **** ******** ******* *** ***** ** ******** *** ********** detail.

Twilight ***** ******** (*** *******)

** **** ********, *** ** ******* *** ********* ****** **** our ***** ******* ~***** *** ***** *** ********** *** (****) is ~*****. *** *** ** ********* ****** **** *** **** human *******. *** ***'* *********** **** ** **** ******** ** ~7.3ft. ****** ******** (~*** ***) **** *** ******* ***** * considerable ******** *********.

***** ** *** ********* ******** (******** *** **** ***** ****):

*** ***** ******** ** **** ***** ******** ***-******* ****** *** cameras (**** *** *** ***), ** ********* ** **** ********* by *** ****** '****' ** *******-*** *** ********. *******, *** PTZ ***** *** *********** * *********** ** ******* ******* **** compared ** *** **** *********** '****** **** ******** (*** *******)' scenario. *** ******** ** *** ** ******* *** *** **** providing ********** ** ****-**** *********** ** *** ***** ******* ** well. ** *** ** *******, *** **** (**** *****) ** the ********* ********* ****, *******, ****** ****** ****** ***** *********** is ******** ***** *** ****** **** ** *******.

Twilight ***** ******** (*** *******)

** **** ********, ** ******* *** ****** ** ** *** subject ~***** ***, **** * ************* **** ** ~*****. *** PTZ ** ****** **** *** **** ******* ** ** ********* ~5ft ****. ****** ******** (~*** ***) **** *** ******* ***** a ************ ******** *********.

***** ** *** ********* ******** (******** *** **** ***** ****):

*****, ***** ******** ** **** ******** ********** *** ******* ** images ****** *** ******* (*** *** ***) **** ******** ** the **** **** ****** *** '****** **** ******** (*** *******)' conditions. ** *** ** *******, *** *** (**** *****) ******** the **** ***** ** ******. *** ************ *** *** ** providing * ***** ** ****** **** ***** ************** ****** ******.

Twilight ***** ******** (**** *******)

** **** ********, ** ******* *** ****** **** *** ***** subject ******* ~**** ***, **** * ************* **** ****. *** PTZ ** ****** **** *** **** ******* ** ** ********* ~5ft ****. ****** ******** (~*** ***) **** *** ******* ***** a ************ ******** *********.

***** ** *** ********* ******** (******** *** **** ***** ****):

**** ** **** ************ ***** ***** *** ***** ********, *****, produces ** ******* *********** ** ***** ******* ****** *** ****** composite (******** ** *** '****** **** ********' ***********). *******, *** are ***** ********* ** ******** *** ******* ***** ** *** PTZ ** ***** ** ********* *********** ********/******* ** *** ***** subject. **** ****** ****** ********* ** *** *** ** **** scenario **** ************** ****** ******.

Nighttime (*** *******)

** **** ********, *** ** ******* *** ********* ****** **** our ***** ******* ~***** *** ***** *** ********** *** (****) is ~*****. *** *** ** ********* ****** **** *** **** human *******. *** ***'* *********** **** ** **** ******** ** ~7.3ft. ** **** ********* ****, ~* *** ** ************ ** provided ** ********** ******** ** *** ******* ***.

***** ** *** ********* ******** (******** *** **** ***** ****):

** ** *********** ******* **** *** *** *****-**** (*******) ******** no ********* *** ***** ***** ************* (*** ***** *** **** distance). ** *** **** ** *** */* ** *******, ** least * ***** ****** ** ******** ********** ****** *** ***** (perhaps **** ********** ** *** **** **** *****). *** *** as **** ******* * ************ **** ** ****** ***** ***** low-light *************, *** ***** ******** * **** ****** ***** ** detail ** ** ** ************* ***.

Nighttime (*** *******)

** **** ********, ** ******* *** ****** ** ** *** subject ~***** ***, **** * ************* **** ** ~*****. *** PTZ ** ****** **** *** **** ******* ** ** ********* ~5ft ****. ** **** ********* *****, ********** ******** ******** ~* lux ** ************.

***** ** *** ********* ******** (******** *** **** ***** ****):

*** ******** ****** ** ***-***** ** ***** ******* ****** *** cameras, ********** *** *** (*******) *** *.*** (*******). ***** ********* is *** **** **** *** ** **********, ***** *** ********** and ****-**** ********** **** ** *** ** ******. ** **** the *** (**** *****) ******** *** ******* ********** ** ****** human *********. *** *** *****, ****** ****, ******* ******** * much ******* ***** ** ****** **** *** ** *******. **** if ************** ** *** * ********* ** **** ****, ******* useful ******* *** ** ******** (****** ****, ******, ***** *** facial ****).

Nighttime (**** *******)

** **** ********, ** ******* *** ****** **** *** ***** subject ******* ~**** ***, **** * ************* **** ****. *** PTZ ** ****** **** *** **** ******* ** ** ********* ~5ft ****. **** **** ********** ****** ******* ~** *** ** illumination ** **** ******** ****** *** ******* ***.

***** ** *** ********* ******** (******** *** **** ***** ****):

** **** '****' ********, *********** ************ ** ***** ******* ****** all ******* *** ******** **** ******** ** *** '***' *** 'mid' ********* *********. *** *** ** ********* * ************ **** level ** *********** ******* ** *** *******, ***** *** *** (Axis *****) *** **** (**** *****) ***** ** ******** *** PTZ's ***** ** ******.

Daytime *** (*** *******)

** **** ********, *** ** ******* *** ****** **** * vehicle ** ~***** ***, ************* ** * **** ** ~*****. The *** ** ****** **** *** ******* ** ****, ***** the **** ** ** ********* ~***. *** ******** ******* ** the ******* ** **** *** *******'* ******* *****. **** **** intense ******** ******** **** *** ******* ***** *********** ******** **********.

***** ** *** ********* ******** (******** *** **** ***** ****):

*** ******** ********** *** ***** ****** ** **** ********** ******** as ********* ** *** ******** ***** (****** *****). **** ** the ** ******* ******* *** ******** *********** ******* ******** (****, model, ***** *******). ** ********, *** *** '****' ** *** vehicle ******* ****** ******* ** ******** *** **** (******) *** model (*****). ******* ***** ******* ** **** ******** ** * fairly **** ****** ** *********.

Daytime *** (**** *******)

** **** ********, *** ** ******* *** ****** **** * vehicle ******* **** **** *** *******. *** ************* **** ** ~63ft. *** *** ** ****** **** *** ******* ** ****, where *** **** ** ** ********* ~***. *** ******** ******* on *** ******* ** **** *** *******'* ******* *****. ** general, ******** ********** *** *********** *** ** ****** ********, *** at **** ********** ******** ******** ******* ****** ****.

***** ** *** ********* ******** (******** *** **** ***** ****):

*** *** (**** *****) ******** *** ******** ***** ** ****** amongst *** ** *******. ***** ** *** ***'* ***** *** license ***** ********** *** ** '*******' **** * **** ****** of *********. *******, *** ***'* '****' ** *** ***** ******** capture ** * ****** ******** ***** ** *********.

Nighttime *** (*** *******)

** **** ********, *** ** ******* *** ****** **** * vehicle ~***** ***, ************* ** * ~***** ****. *** *** is ****** **** *** ******* ** ****, ***** *** **** is ** ********* ~***. *** ******** ******* ** *** ******* to **** *** *******'* ******* *****. ********** ****** ******* ******* ~2 *** ** ************.

***** ** *** ********* ******** (******** *** **** ***** ****):

*** ***'* ***** ** *** ******* ***** **** *** ****** enough ******* *** ** ********** ******* ***** *******, *** **** provide ****** *** * ****** ******* '*****'. ** ********, **** of *** ** ******* ******* ****** ** **** **** * remote '*****' ** ** ***** **********.

***********

*** ********* *** *** **** (*) ******* **** ** *** 'PTZ ****** ** ********':

  • **** *****(****** $****) - *** */*; */*.*" ****; **.* ****;*.** *** (B/W)
  • (online $****) - *** */*; */*" ***; *****-** **** (**.* ~ **.*); *.* *** (*/*)
  • ********** *******(****** $***) - *** *****; */*" ****; **.* ********** ;*.* Lux (*****)
  • **** *****(****** $***) - **** */*; */*" ****; **.* *******; *.* Lux (*/*)
  • ******* ********(****** $****) - *** */*; */*.*" ****; **.* *********; *.* Lux (*/*)

**** ** *** **** ******* **** ************** ******** ** ** Exacqvision *** ****** ***** (*) *** ******** *********. *** ******* are *** ** ***** ******** ****** **** *********. *** ** camera ****** **** ******** ** * ******* **** ***** (~** degrees) *** ********/******** ** ***** ******* ***********.

***** **** *** ** ************* ****** **** *** ******* ******** its ********** *** *** ** *.*** (****** **** *** ******* 5MP) ********** ******* *********.

**** *** *** *** ******* ******** *** **** ******:

  • **** ***** - ******** ***** '**'; ******** ******* '*********'
  • ***** **-*** - */** ******* (*****)
  • ********** ******* -*/** *******; *****-****
  • **** ***** - */*** *******; ****-**/** **; *** '******'
  • ******* ******** - ******** ******** '**' (** ** */***); *** 'On' (** ** **)

**** *** *** ***** (*) *** ******** ********* ** ********:

  • ****** **** ******** - **** ********; ~*** ** ~*** ***
  • ******** ***** ******** - *** - *** *** ******** **** cameras
  • ********* - ********** ******** ****** **** ~*.* *** ** ~** lux

****** **** ** *** ***** (*) ******** ********* * ***** test ******* ***** **** * '***' ***** (~*****) ******* *** cameras. *** ******* ***** ********* ***** ** ****** ** ******* intermediate ********* **** ********** *** ****** *******. * '***' ***** stop/pause ** **** ** * ******** ~***** *** *** * 'near' ****/***** ** **** ** ~**** ***. ******* ***** ****** are **** ** ***** ***** ** **** (****, ****, ****, and ***). ** *** ******* ******** **** '***' ** '****' the *** ** ******, ******, *** ****** ** ******** ** optimal *** ** *** ******* (******** **** *' ** *' wide). **** *** ******* ****** ****** *** '****' ***** * PTZ ****** ** ******** **** *********** ** *** **** *********/*** of *** ** *******.

Login to read this IPVM report.
Why do I need to log in?
IPVM conducts unique testing and research funded by member's payments enabling us to offer the most independent, accurate and in-depth information.

Related Reports on PTZs

PTZ Usage Declines 2017 - Statistics on Jul 03, 2017
PTZ usage is declining, now at ~6% of all cameras integrator use, down from ~10% of cameras used in 2014, according to new IPVM...
Panoramic Camera Usage Rising 2017 on May 08, 2017
Panoramic camera usage (including fisheye and multi-imagers) continue to rise rapidly. However, the race to the bottom is hindering even stronger...
Security Consultants Speak Episode 1 - Protus3 on Oct 21, 2016
This is a first of a series of conversations with security consultants. If you are a security consultant that wants to talk and can share frank...
PTZ Camera Guide 2016 on Sep 15, 2016
Pan/Tilt/Zoom cameras remain critical parts of many surveillance systems, especially in large security operations. Because of this it is important...
Axis Laser Focus PTZ Camera Examined on Sep 08, 2016
How do you make a PTZ focus better and faster? If you are Axis, you add a laser to it. In this report, we examine Axis' new Q6155-E, looking at...
Panoramic Camera (Fisheye / Multi-Imager) Guide on Aug 31, 2016
Panoramic cameras, including fisheyes and multi-imagers, have become increasingly widespread, with most manufacturers offering fisheyes and an...
Hikvision ~$300 Mini PTZ Tested on Jul 08, 2016
A PTZ camera at fixed dome prices? That is the promise of Hikvision's new DS-2DE2103, a compact PTZ with 3x optical zoom in a package smaller than...
$260 IR Outdoor 'Speeddome' Tested on Apr 20, 2016
Just $260 for an outdoor 'speeddome' form factor with integrated IR, wireless, HD video and more? Pricing has certainly come down (e.g., we...
Hikvision IR PTZ Tested on Mar 07, 2016
Hikvision continues to break low cost barriers, now with a 1080p IP IR PTZ for under $800 online, the DS-2DE5220I-AE, half the price of past...
Bosch IR PTZ Tested on Feb 26, 2016
PTZs have historically struggled in low light, with integrated IR being uncommon. In the past few years, this has changed, as some integrated IR...

Most Recent Industry Reports

Anixter - Falling Video Prices on Jul 26, 2017
Falling video prices are such a concern that it has become a notable topic for Anixter's financial results and Anixter's executives. In this...
Bosch G-Series Intrusion Tested on Jul 26, 2017
Bosch is one of the biggest names in intrusion, and the company's G-Series panels are their most advanced commercial and high-security panels. But...
Healthy Skepticism for Deep Learning Is Prudent on Jul 26, 2017
The hype for deep learning in video surveillance is accelerating. Between the race to the bottom and dearth of a 'next big thing', certainly pent...
$28M Drone Detection Startup Examined (Dedrone) on Jul 25, 2017
Dedrone has received ~$28M in funding to build what they call an "automatic anti-drone solution", a system to detect drones, and then automatically...
Dahua Suffers Second Major Vulnerability, Silent [Finally Acknowledges] on Jul 25, 2017
Less than 3 months ago, Dahua received DHS ICS-CERT's worst score of 10.0 for their backdoor. Now, Dahua has received another 10.0 score for a new...
Hikvision H.265+ Bullet Tested (2035) on Jul 24, 2017
Continuing our tests of Hikvision's new low cost Value Plus line, we bought and tested the 3MP DS-2CD2035FWD-I, now including H.265+. We shot the...
Sports Stadium Security Design Recommendations on Jul 24, 2017
Sports stadiums pose many challenges for designing security systems. The facilities vary from being mostly vacant, to packed with tens of thousands...
Competing Against Convergint on Jul 24, 2017
No integrator is more aggressively expanding than Convergint Technologies. Owned and funded by private equity firm KRG, Convergint has acquired...
Security Robots Are Just Entertainment on Jul 21, 2017
Great entertainment, no real security value.  That is the happy (or sad) state of security robots in 2017. Knightscope robot's drowning, the...
Wireless Burglar Alarm Sensors Guide on Jul 21, 2017
Wireless sensors for burglar alarm sensors are an increasingly common option for the historical labor intensive wired alarm systems. However,...

The world's leading video surveillance information source, IPVM provides the best reporting, testing and training for 10,000+ members globally. Dedicated to independent and objective information, we uniquely refuse any and all advertisements, sponsorship and consulting from manufacturers.

About | FAQ | Contact