Network Addressing for Video Surveillance Guide

By IPVM Team, Published Jan 10, 2022, 09:54am EST (Info+)

The purpose of this guide is to explain addressing devices on IP networks, focusing on how IP cameras and recorders are used in those networks.

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Inside, we cover the following topics and their impact on surveillance/security networks:

  • MAC Addresses
  • Multiple MACs Possible
  • Manufacturer OUIs
  • OEM Devices
  • IP Addresses
  • Address Conflicts
  • Subnet Mask
  • Subnetting Large Deployments
  • Default Gateways
  • IPv4 vs IPv6 Formats
  • Video and IP Addresses
  • Dynamic vs. Static Addresses
  • Public vs Private Addresses
  • Zero Config
  • Network Classes
  • Loopback / localhost
  • Test Yourself

MAC Addresses

All network devices (PCs, servers, cameras, switches, etc.) have a fixed address, called a MAC address (Media Access Control), a unique 12 character identifier, such as:

AC:CC:8E:0C:B5:F4

Since MAC addresses are issued at the factory and do not change, they are often used for identifying devices on a network even if the IP address is unknown or has changed.

Multiple Network Interface = Multiple MACs

If a device has multiple network interfaces, it may have more than one single MAC address as the MAC is associated with a device's network interfaces, not the general device. In the case of cameras with multiple network connections (e.g., a camera with both a wired ethernet port and an integrated wireless radio), the device would have multiple MAC addresses.

Since the vast majority of cameras include only a single ethernet port, the MAC address could be/is often indirectly used to describe the entire camera.

Organizationally Unique Identifier

The first segment of a MAC address, typically six digits, is called the OUI, and each manufacturer is assigned one or more unique identifiers. For example, these are the OUIs of some common cameras manufacturers:

IPVM Image

*******, **** *************' ******* *** **** of ***** ****** ********* ***** *** make ** **** ********* ** ******** them. *** *******, *********** * ****** with *** *** **:**:** ******* ******** Solutions, ******* ** ********.

OUI *******

**** ********* ******* ** *** ***** six ********** ** *** *** *******, as ***** ** *** ******** *****. However, ** *** **** *** *****, IEEE *** ****** ************ ** *-***** OUIs (** ****), **** ** *******, below (**:**:**:*):

IPVM Image

**** ****** ****** *** ** ************* in *** **** ***** ** *** typically, *** ******** ***** ******* *********, 1,048,575 (** *********** ****) ******* ** 16,777,215 (** ****), ****** **** ** still ****** **** **** ****** *** many *************.

OEM ******* & *********

** ***** ***** ************* *** ***** devices **** *******, ***** *** ** used ******* ** ************* **********. *** example, ******** *** *** ******* ** a ********* ****** ************ ** ***** (00:1f:55), ** ** ****** ** ********* China (**:**:**). *******, ***** **** *** using *********** *** **** ******** ** Dahua, ** ** ********** ** *****'* own ****** ********* ********:

IPVM Image

******, *******, **** *** *** ** the ******** ************ ******* ** *** relabeled. *** *******, ** * ******* scan ***** *****, ** *** ******* (relabeled *****) ****** ** ********** ** Dahua's *** *******, ******* * ***** OUI (**:**:**).

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IP ********* *******

** ***** ************, **** ********** *** IP *********, ********* ** *******, ********, recorders, ****** ******* ******, *** ****. The ** ******* ** * ****** is **** ** *** ** ** a *** ** ***, ***** ****** software ******** ** *** *** ** NVR ********* *** *** ** *******.

** ** ******* (**** ************) ******** of **** ***** (****** ****** ******* they ******* * **** ** ****) ranging ** ***** **** *-***, ********* by *******, **** **:

***.***.*.**

*** ** ******* ** ******* **** a ******* ******* (***.***.* ** *** example *****) *** * **** ******* (.49 ** **** ****). ** * single ***, *** ******* ******* ** typically *** **** *** *** *******, while *** **** ******* *******. ** 192.168.1.49, ***.***.*.**, *** ***.***.*.** *** ******* different ******* ** *** **** *******.

Analog ** ** ******* ** **********

****** ******* (******* ** ** **), by ********** ** ***** ******, ** not **** ** **** ** ********* since **** **** ** ******* *********. However, ****** ******* *** ********* ********* to ********* ** ******** **** ** have ******* ********** *** ********* *** IP *********.

IP ******* *********

** **** **** *** ****** ******** to *** *** **** ** *******, generally ******* **** ** **** ** connect ** *** *******. ** ***, the **** ** ********* ******** **** a ****** *** ********* *** ** causing ** ** ******* ********. *******, if *** ******* ***** *** **** address, ****** **** ********* *** ** generated, *** ******* *** ******** ** offline ** *** ****** ***** ** a ********, ******* ** ****** *************** time.

**** **** **** ************* **** ***** cameras **** * ********* ******* ** address. ******** **** **** *** **** the ******* ** * **** *** cause ******* *********, ** ***** ******* must ** ********* *** ** * time *** **-*********. ********** ****** ***** if ***** ****** ************(*) *** ******* IP ********* *** **** ******* ***** accordingly. **** ********** **** *** **** *** ***********.

Subnet **** / **********

****** ******** ** ******** ***** ** ** addressing, ******* *** ***** ** **** report. ***********, * ****** **** ********** which ***** ** ** ** ******* reflect *** "*******" **. *** "****." In ********, *** **** ******** ** networks, ************ ********, *** ******* ****** masks *** *** ** ******* ***** (discussed *****), **** ******** ***.***.***.*. ** class * ********, *.*., ***.**.*.*), *** default ****** **** ** ***.***.*.*.

Subnets ** ***** ***********

*** ****** ****** ******** **** ******* over *** ****** *********, ****** ***** are **** ***** **** ** ****** the ******* ** ** ********** ****** or *******. **** ** **** ** changing *** **** ***** ** *** mask. *** ***** *** **** ** removed, ** ********** *** **** ****** becomes *********.

** * ********* *******, ******** ****** mask **** ***.***.***.* ** ***.***.***.* ** * ***.***.*.* ******* ****** users ** ****** **** *** ***.***.*.* network ******* ***** * ******, * total ** *** ***** ******* ** 255, *********** ******** ********* ** *********. Changing *** **** ** ***.***.***.* ******* this ******* ** **** *** (***.***.*.*-***.***.*.***).

IPVM Image

*** ***** ********** ** **** *********** on **********, *** *** ****** ************ *** ***** ************.

Default ********

*********, *** ********* ** ***** ************, the **** "******* *******" ** ********** with *******. ** ******* *** ****, like ***, **** ****** ** ***** the ******* ** *** ******* *******. In ********, **** ***** *** ******* of *** ****** — *** "*******" to *** ********.

*** ******* ******* ** ****** *** computers ** ***** ******** ** ****** the ** ***** ************ *********. *** example, ***** ** * ****** **** or ** ***** ****** ***** ********* not ** **** ** ******* ** an ** ****** ** ******** **** does *** **** * ******* ******* set. *********, ** ******** ************, *** entering ** * ******* ******* ** done ** *******, ** ***** *** access ** *** ******.

IPv4 **. ****

******* *** *** ** *** ******** has ******** **** ****, ******** ***** the ****** ** ********* ********* ***** IPv4 ****** ***** (************* **********), **** ** *** *********** ** an ******** ******* ******,****.

****** ****, ***** **** ** **** (8x4) *** **** *******, **** **** 16 ****** (*** **** *****), ********* in***********(*-* + *-*). **** ***** ********* by ****** ********** *** ******. *** example:

****:****:****:****:****:****:****:****

**** ******** ** ******* **** ******* in ************* **********************, * **** ******** **** *** IPv4 ***** ** ***** *.* ******* addresses.

**** ******** ******* ****** *** **** formats, *** **** ****** ** ******* can ** ********** ** *** ****** format. **** **** *** **** ****** should ** **** **********.

IPv4 ******* ** ************

******* ****'* ****** ******* ****, **** continues ** ** *** ******** ****** used. ********** *** ******* ********, **** a ****** ****** ** ********* ******* like * ************ ******, ** ******* exhaustion ** *** * ********* *******. IPv4 ******* ****** ** *** *** administer, *** ***** ** ****** ** no ****** ** *** *** **** complex **** ******.

IPv6 ******* *** ******** *********

******* *** ******* *** ** ************ networks,****** ******* **** ********* ***** ***** ***** ********* ** ~**% ** ****. **** *** ** *** ******** is ************, ** ***** *** ********* from ~**% ** ****, ***** ** took ~** ******* ***** **%.

**** ******* ******** *** ******** *** in ******** ********, *** **** ** likely ** ****** ******* ** *** public ******** *** **** ****.

Static **. ******* **********

******* *** ** *** **** ****** a ****** (**** *** ****** **** time) ** ******* (******* ************ ***** on ***** ****) ** *******. ******* cameras *** **** *** ********* ***** devices *** ********** ** *********** *** IP *******, ****** **** ******* ********* may ***** ****** **** *** ** changes, ******* ***** ** *********** *******. Therefore, *** ******* ** ******** ******* are ********* ******** ******** ****** *********. Using ******* ********* *** ******* **** need ** ** ***** *** ***** IP ******* ** ********** ** ****** to ******* ****** ** ***** ** a **** ***** *** ****** *** renumbered *** *** ******* *** ******* periodically.

*******, ***** *** **** ***** ** which ******* ********* *** ** ****.

  • **** ******* ** * *** ************ network, ***** (******* **** ************* ********) ******** ***** **** ** *********** ****** IP ********* ** ******* ** **** may ** ******* *** *************. *** example, * *** ****** ********* ** the ******* ******** ** ******* **** the ******, ***** *** ********* ***** to ******* ******* ************* *** ****** a ********* *******.
  • **** **** ******* *******, **** ** client *** *** ******* *** ** dynamically *********. ***** ***** ******* *** typically **** **** ************, *** ********* do *** **** ** ** ******* for ************* ** ********* ** * VMS ** ** ******* ** ******* are, ********* **** * ******* ******* is ***** **********.

*** **** ****** ** *** ****** addressing ** **** ******** *** ** video *******, **** ********** **. ****** ** *************.

****-*************

***** ** * ****** ** ******* addresses ********* ** *** ** ****-*************, commonly ****** ********, ***** ****** ******* to *** * ******* ******* ******* a **** ****** ** *****. ** surveillance, *** **** ****** ******* ** this ** ******* ***** ** ** cameras. ********** * ****** ******** ** a ******, **** **** ******* *** to *** ******* **********, **** **** both ** ************* ********* ** ** address ********* **** ***.***. **** ****** initial ************* ** ** ********* *** the ** ******* ******* ******* ******* a **** ****** (**** **** ****, but *** ***, ******* ******* ******* this).

Loopback / *********

*** ******* ***.*.*.* ** *** *********/******** address *** ****** *** ********. ** the ******** *******, ** ** **** for ******* *** ***/** ******** *****. If * ******* *** ******* ************ problems, ** ** *** ** **** that *** *** *** ******** *** functioning ********* ** ***** *****:

IPVM Image

**** **** ** *** *********, ** lets ****** **** **** *** ****** is *** **** ** *** ****. This ** ******** **** **** * client ** ******* ** *** **** machine ** * ****** *** *** web ************. *** ********** ***** ***** a ******* ******* *********** ****** *** the ****** ** *** **** *******. The ****** ******** ***** *********.

IPVM Image

***** ** ** ***** ** ******* running ****, ***** ******** ***.*.*.* **** a ******* ** **** ******* ****** us ** *** *** ********* *** PRTG.

IPVM Image

Network *******

** *******, *** ************ ******* ********* unique ********* ** * *******, *** total ********* ****** ** ****** ***-******** supported ** * ******** **** ****** a ************ ******. *** ***** **** common ******* ******* *** ******* ** follows:

  • ***** *:**** **** ******** **** ** ******* IP ********* *** *******, *** **** supports *** ********* *******. (**** *.*.*.* to ***.***.***.***)
  • ***** *:*** **** ******** **** **,*** ** addresses *** *******, *** ***** **,*** different *******. (**** ***.*.*.* ** ***.***.***.***)
  • ***** *:**** **** ******** **** *** ** addresses *** *******, *** ****** * million *******. (**** ***.*.*.* ** ***.***.***.***)

*** **** ******** ** ************/******** ******** use ***** * *********, ** *** number ** ******* ****** **** *** require ***** *******.

Private/ ****** ********

***** ****** ** *** ******** *** an ** *******, *** *** ***** networked ****** ** ** *** ********. The ********** ** *** ******** ******* private **. ****** ********. *** *******, an ** ***** ******* ***** ******* of ******** ** ********* ** ******* without * ****** **** ***** ******** connected ** *** ********.

********* **** * *** ******* ********** devices **** ******* ** ********* *** given * ****** ** *******. *******, some ********* ** ** ******* *** be ******** ********* (********,*) ** *** ***. **** ** far **** ****** ** ********/*********** *** small ****** *** **** ******* *** enterprise *******, ***** ********* ****** ******* security, **** *************' ** *********** ********** not ** **** ***** ******* ** the ********.

******** ** *** "***" *** *** "192" ******* ****** *** ********** *** private ********. *** ********* ********* *** "public," *** ******** ** *** ****** Internet. ******* ******** *** *** ** addresses ******** ** *** ********* ******:

  • ***.***.*.* - ***.***.***.*** (**,*** ** *********)
  • ***.**.*.* - ***.**.***.*** (*,***,*** ** *********)
  • **.*.*.* - **.***.***.*** (**,***,*** ** *********)

** ****** *******, ** ********* *** associated ********** *******, ***** ***** ******** ******* ****** a ******* ** *** ******* ** adding * ******* ************* ****. **** surveillance ******* *** ********* ** * class * *******, ** ********* ** our***** ******* ** ********* ** *** Use *** ** *****?**********, ** ***** **% ** *********** said **** *** ***.***.* ******** *** their *************.

Test **** *********

**** ****** ******** *******

[****: **** ***** *** ********** ********* in ****, *** ************* ******* **** 2018-2022 ** ******* ****/**** *******, ****** masking ***********, **-*** ****, *** ****]

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