Network Addressing for Video Surveillance Guide
The purpose of this guide is to explain addressing devices on IP networks, focusing on how IP cameras and recorders are used in those networks.
Inside, we cover the following topics and their impact on surveillance/security networks:
- MAC Addresses
- Multiple MACs Possible
- Manufacturer OUIs
- OEM Devices
- IP Addresses
- Address Conflicts
- Subnet Mask
- Subnetting Large Deployments
- Default Gateways
- IPv4 vs IPv6 Formats
- Video and IP Addresses
- Dynamic vs. Static Addresses
- Public vs Private Addresses
- Zero Config
- Network Classes
- Loopback / localhost
- Test Yourself
All network devices (PCs, servers, cameras, switches, etc.) have a fixed address, called a MAC address (Media Access Control), a unique 12 character identifier, such as:
Since MAC addresses are issued at the factory and do not change, they are often used for identifying devices on a network even if the IP address is unknown or has changed.
Multiple Network Interface = Multiple MACs
If a device has multiple network interfaces, it may have more than one single MAC address as the MAC is associated with a device's network interfaces, not the general device. In the case of cameras with multiple network connections (e.g., a camera with both a wired ethernet port and an integrated wireless radio), the device would have multiple MAC addresses.
Since the vast majority of cameras include only a single ethernet port, the MAC address could be/is often indirectly used to describe the entire camera.
Organizationally Unique Identifier
The first segment of a MAC address, typically six digits, is called the OUI, and each manufacturer is assigned one or more unique identifiers. For example, these are the OUIs of some common cameras manufacturers: