Intersection Shootout

Author: Benros Emata, Published on May 07, 2011

Intersections are an important area for using surveillance cameras. Accidents, thefts and traffic congestion are among the many common incidents that cameras can help solve.

However, intersections are particularly challenging to monitor. The scenes are complex with many vehicles and people moving through it. The reflective surface of the cars and their headlights at night make it harder for surveillance cameras to accurately capture details.

Megapixel cameras should provide an important advancement in monitoring intersections as they deliver a significant increase in pixel density relative to traditional CCTV cameras. How much of an advancement is it really and under what conditions?

In this report, we share our extensive findings from a real world intersection test. We went out to a busy intersection with a kit of 7 IP cameras (including SD, 720p, 2MP, 3MP and 5MP from Arecont Vision, Axis, Bosch, IQinVision and Sony) to better understand the tradeoffs for ourselves. As the image below shows, we captured most of the intersection from one side to the other:

We placed our camera kit on one corner to capture both directions of traffic. The overhead image and map below demonstrates the coverage, distances and pixels per foot at different positions.

Then we analyzed a series of scenes to see how performance varied across the cameras. We digitally zoomed each camera to the same level to see the differences. See an example scene comparison from our parking lot test.

We conducted our analysis across 13 scenes. They are:

  • Midday Comparison By Distance / HFoV
  • Night Comparison by Distance / HFoV
  • Midday Intersection - Vehicle (Far)
  • Midday Intersection - Vehicle (Mid)
  • Midday Intersection - Vehicle (Near)
  • Midday Intersection - Person (Far)
  • Midday Intersection - Person (Near)
  • Night Intersection - Vehicle  (Far)
  • Night Intersection - Vehicle (Mid)
  • Night Intersection - Vehicle (Near)
  • Night Intersection - Person (Far)
  • Night Intersection - Person (Near)
  • Midday Half Intersection Analysis

Inside, we dig into and provide recommendations on each one, sharing our findings from the test.

************* *** ** ********* **** *** ***** ************ *******. *********, thefts *** ******* ********** *** ***** *** **** ****** ********* that ******* *** **** *****.

*******, ************* *** ************ *********** ** *******. *** ****** *** complex **** **** ******** *** ****** ****** ******* **. *** reflective ******* ** *** **** *** ***** ********** ** ***** make ** ****** *** ************ ******* ** ********** ******* *******.

********* ******* ****** ******* ** ********* *********** ** ********** ************* as **** ******* * *********** ******** ** ***** ******* ******** to *********** **** *******. *** **** ** ** *********** ** it ****** *** ***** **** **********?

** **** ******, ** ***** *** ********* ******** **** * real ***** ************ ****. ** **** *** ** * **** intersection **** * *** ** * ** ******* (********* **, 720p, ***, *** *** *** **** ******* ******, ****, *****, IQinVision *** ****) ** ****** ********** *** ********* *** *********. As *** ***** ***** *****, ** ******** **** ** *** intersection **** *** **** ** *** *****:

** ****** *** ****** *** ** *** ****** ** ******* both ********** ** *******. *** ******** ***** *** *** ***** demonstrates *** ********, ********* *** ****** *** **** ** ********* positions.

**** ** ******** * ****** ** ****** ** *** *** performance ****** ****** *** *******. ** ********* ****** **** ****** to *** **** ***** ** *** *** ***********. *** ********* ***** ********** **** *** ******* *** ****.

** ********* *** ******** ****** ** ******. **** ***:

  • ****** ********** ** ******** / ****
  • ***** ********** ** ******** / ****
  • ****** ************ - ******* (***)
  • ****** ************ - ******* (***)
  • ****** ************ - ******* (****)
  • ****** ************ - ****** (***)
  • ****** ************ - ****** (****)
  • ***** ************ - *******  (***)
  • ***** ************ - ******* (***)
  • ***** ************ - ******* (****)
  • ***** ************ - ****** (***)
  • ***** ************ - ****** (****)
  • ****** **** ************ ********

******, ** *** **** *** ******* *************** ** **** ***, sharing *** ******** **** *** ****.

[***************]

[****: ****** *** ****** *** *** ********* *** **** ****. They **** ******* ****** * ********** ** * *** ******* provider. * ********* *** *** *******].

Key ******** / ***************

***** *** ********* ******* ********* ******** ************ ** ******* ********, overall *** *********** *** *************, ********** ******** ** *** ********* marketing ****. ********* ******** ***** **** ********* *** ************ **** be ********* ** *****.

  • *** ********, *** ********* ******* **** ** ****** ** ********* make *** ***** ** ********* **** ******* ** *** ***** and *********** ** *** ********. ** *** ********, ** *** nearly ********** ** *** ******* ** ****** ** ****** ****** vehicles.
  • *** ******, *** ********* ******* ******* ****** ****** ** ********* details *** ******* ***** *** ******* ******* ***** ****** ******* (even ********** ***** ** *** *******).
  • ********** *** ** ******** *** ********* ***** **** ***** ******** - **** ** *** *** ********* ******* (*** ********** *** for *** ******* ****** ******).

**** ******* ** ****** ************ ** ** ************, *** ********* findings **** *** **** ****** ** **** ** ****:

  • *** ********** ** *** ************: *** **** ******** *** * lanes ** * ***** *** ******** ** **** ** ** feet (**** *** ********/****, *** ******** *** ********). ******* ** a ****** ** ** **** ****** ** ***** **** ******* challenges ** ********* ******* **** *** *********. ** *** **** setup, ** **** ******* ***** */**** ** */*** ** *** intersection. ** * ******* ************ ** ******** ** ***** **** half ** ************, ****** ******* ******** ***** ******* ************* (*** last ******** ** **** ******).
  • ** ******** ** ******** ***** ******* **********, *** ******** ***** ******* ** ** ************ is ****** ** ** ************ *****. ***** ******** ******* **** reflection *** ** ****** ******** *** ****** ** ********** *** common ****** ** ************* **** ********* ********* ******* **** ********* their ********* ******* ************.

Day ********** ** ******** / ****

*** ***** ***** ********* *** ********** ** ***** ****** ********* by *** ****** ********* *** **** *** ***** ******* *** 2 ********* ********* ** *** ***** ****** *** ***. **** ****** close ** *** ****** (**** * ~**** ****), ***** *** MP ******** **** ******, *** ********* ******* *** ****** ** best. ** *** ***** **** ** *** ************, *** ********* camera ******** * ****** '****' ***** ***** **** ********** ** describing * *******. *** ********, *** ******* ******* *** **** megapixel **** ** ****** ** ******** *** **** ** * vehicle, *** *** *** ******* *****.

Night ********** ** ******** / ****

** *****, *** **** ******** **** ****** *** *** *****. Interesting ** ****, ******* ** *** ***** ******** ** ******* headlights, *** ***** *** ********** ****** *** ***** **** *** the ********** ****** *********** ******* ****** *** **** *******.

Midday ************ (*** *******)

** **** ********, ******* *** ********* ****** **** ******** ~***** out, ************* ** ~***** ****. ****** ******** ** **** *** not ************ ***********.

**** ** *** ****** ****** ******* ****** ******* *** ***** capture. *******, ** *** ******** ** ** *******, ***** *** details *** **********. *** *******, *****, ******* **** (*****/*** ***.), and ******* ** *** ***** ******* **** ** ******** **** and *****. ** ********, *** ** ****** ******* **** * crude ********** ** *****, *** ******** ******* ****.

Midday ************ (*** *******)

** **** ********, ******* *** ********* ****** **** * ******* ~85ft ***, ************* ** * ~**** ****. ****** ******** ********** are **** *** *** ************ ***********. **** **** *** ** the **** (***** ***-***) ******* ** *** *********** ** **** composite, *** ** ** ***** **** ***** *****-****.

*****, **** ** *** ****** ****** ******* ******** ****** ****** for ***** *******. *******, *** ******* ** ******* ****** ****** to ******** **** *** ******* **** ** * ******* ***** and **** *** ***** ** ****** ** ** ****** * variety ** *****, **** ** ******* ***** ** **** *******. In *** ** ******* (******* *** *** *** ***) * fair ***** ** ****** ** *** ******* ******** *** ***** pattern ******** * ******** ** ****** ********** ** ****/***** **************.

Midday ************ (**** *******)

** **** ********, ******* *** ********* ****** **** * ******* ~55ft ***, ************* ** * ~**** ****. ****** ******** ********** are **** *** *** ************ ***********. **** **** *** ** the **** (***** ***-***) ******* ** *** *********** ** **** composite, *** ** ** ***** **** ***** *****-****.

**** ** **** '****' ******* ********, **** ** *** ******* provide ****** ****** ********** *** ********** ***** *******. **** **** the *** ****** ******** ******* ***** ** **** ********** '****'. However, ******* ******* *** **** ******** ******** ** *** '***' scenario. ***, ** ****, ***** *** ******* *** ***** ********** with ******** ** **** ******* ** ********* (*.*. *****, ***** color, *** ****/***** ***** ** ******** *** ***** *******). ******, SD ** ******* **** ********, ** *** ** ****** **** in ********* ***** **** ******* ******* *** **** *********** ** identifying ******* ****/***** *** *****.

Midday ************ (*** *****)

** **** ********, ******* *** ********* ****** **** * ***** subject ~***** ***, ************* ** * ~***** ****. ****** ******** conditions *** **** *** *** ************ ***********.

** **** ****** **** ***, *** ****** ** (****** *** and ***) *** **** ******* ******* *** ******* **** ** is ****** ** *******. ********, ************** ** ************ ********, ***** key ******* **** ** **********, ******, ********, *****, *** ****** head *** ******** **** **** ******* ** *********. ** ******** the ** ******* ****** *** ***** ******* ** ** *********** non-descript '****'.

Midday ************ (**** *****)

** **** ********, ******* *** ********* ****** **** * ***** subject ~**** ***, ************* ** * ~**** ****. ****** ******** conditions *** **** *** *** ************ ***********.

** ******** ** *** '***' ******** (*****), *** ******* ********* SD, ******* * ******** ** ****** ***** ** **********, ******, clothing, *****, *** ****** ****. ******* ** *** ** *******, especially *** ***, ********* ****** ******* ** **** ************** * moderate ** ****** ********** ** ****.

Nighttime ************ (*** *******)

** **** ******** ******* *** ********* ****** **** *** ******** located ~***** ***, ************* ** * **** ** ~*****. *** nighttime *********** ******** **** ******** ********** *** ** ****-****** ******** into *** ****** ***. ** ******* *** ***** ** *********** by ********* ******** *** ****** ****** ******** (~* ** ~** lux).

*** ****-****** **** *** ******** *** ****** * ************ ******* for *** *** */* (**** *****) *** *.*** */* (******* AV3135). *** ** ******** ****-******, ***** ******* ******* ** ***** that ** ******** ******* *** *** *******(*) ** ********. ** is **** ***** **** **** ** *** ******* ******* ** ability *** ***** ******* ** ***** *********** ******* **** ***** lead ** *** ****/*****. *************, *** *** ******* ** ***** mode (*** ******* *** ** **** *****) ******* ***** *** best ******* *******.

Nighttime ************ (*** *******)

** **** ******** ******* *** ********* ****** **** * ******* located ~**** ***, ************* ** * **** ** ~****. *** nighttime *********** ******** **** ******** ********** *** ** ********* ******* lights. **** **** **** *** ******* ** ******* ** ** area ***** ***** ********** *** *** ***** ****** ******* ****** additional ******** **********. ** ******* *** ***** ** *********** ** transient ******** *** ****** ****** ****** (~* ** ~** ***).

** ** ***** ******* **** **** ** *** ******* ******* enough ****** *** ***** *******. *** *** */* (*****) *** 1.3MP */* (******) ****** ****** ************ ******** ** ****** *** - *** *** **** ** ******** ****-****** *** **** ****, perhaps, ***** ***** ******* (*.*., ********* ***** **** ******* ********, and *** *******'* ********** ******* ******). ******* ** *** ******** 'far' ********, *** ***** **** ******* (*** ******* *** ** M1011) ******* ******** ****** **** ******** *******. ****, *************, *** other ** (***** ***-***) ** ********** ******* ******* ******** **** many ** *** ***** ******* ** *** *********.

Nighttime ************ (**** *******)

** **** ******** ******* *** ********* ****** **** * ******* located ~**** ***, ************* ** * **** ** ~****. *** nighttime *********** ******** **** ******** ********** *** ** ********* ******* lights *** ********** ******* ********. ** ******* *** ***** ** illuminated ** ********* ******** *** ****** ****** ****** (~* ** ~15 ***).

** ******** ** *** ******* ***********, **** ********* ********* ******* much **** ******* *******. ***** *** ******** ** *** ******* are ****** ***** ** ******* ** *** ******* (***, **** NBN-921, ** *****, *** ** ***-***), *** ***** ******* ** the ******* ** ***** ****** ****** *** ****** *********. *********** make ***/** ***** ** ************ ********, ***** *** **** ** clarity ** ***** ******. ****, *****, **** *** *** */* and *.*** */* *********** *** **** ***** ******* *********** *** to ******** *****-*******.

Nighttime ************ (*** *****)

** **** ******** ******* *** ********* ****** **** * ***** subject ******* ~***** ***, ************* ** * **** ** ~*****. The ********* *********** ******** **** ******** ********** *** ** ********* vehicle ****** *** ********** ******* ********. ** ******* *** ***** is *********** ** ********* ******** *** ****** ****** ****** (~* to ~** ***).

** ******** ** *** ******* *********** (****** ************ '***' *****), this ********* ********* ******** **** **** ******. *** ******** ******* such ** **********, ********, ******, *** ****-***** *** *** ******* discernible. *******, ***** ******** ** *** *******, ******** ****** * taller/medium *****. ** ***** ** ***** ********, *** */* **** cameras ******* ******* ******* *** ******** ****** *** ***** **** cameras. **** ********** **** ** *** ** *****-**** (**** *****) the ******* ** *********** * '****' *** ****** ** **** the ************ *** ** * **** ** ********.

Nighttime ************ (**** *****)

** **** ******** ******* *** ********* ****** **** * ***** subject ******* ~**** ***, ************* ** * **** ** ~****. The ********* *********** ******** **** ******** ********** *** ** ********* vehicle ****** *** ********** ******* ********. ** ******* *** ***** is *********** ** ********* ******** *** ****** ****** ****** (~* to ~** ***).

*** ***** **** ******* (*** ******* *** ** **** *****) provide ***** ********** **** *** */* **** ******* ** **** composite. **** *******, * ******** ********** ** *** *******'* ***** of ******** *** ********** ** ******** ** *** ***** **** cameras. *************, *** ***** **** ******* *** ******* **** ******** than *** */* ******* ***** *** ******* '*****' **** '***' to '****'. ** ********* *****, ***** *** */** ** */* mode ***** ** ****** ***************. **** **** ** *** ******* fair *********** ** ******, ***** *** ****-*****. ************** ** *** human ******* ** ****** ******** ****** *** ******* ** **** composite, ** ****.

Narrow **** ************

******** * ******** * * * **** ************ ** ******* challenging **** *** ********* *******. ** * ***** ************ ****, we ***** ******** **** **** *** ************ ** *** **** improvements ** ******* ***** ** ********. ** *** ******* ***** shows, * ****** ******** ********** ** ******* ******. ****** ******* can ** **** ** ******** ** *** ****** ***** ** the ****** ***** ********** **** * ********** ********. **** ****** the ************, ******** ******* *** ** ******** ** **** ** an ******* ** ******* ******. *** *** ******* **** ** how ********* **** ******** **** ** ************ **. **** ***** will **** ** ****** * ****** ****** ** ***** *** whole ************.

***********

*** ********* *** *** ***** (*) ******* **** ** *** 'Intersection ********':

  • ******* ******(****** $***) - ***/*.*** */*; */*" ****; ****** **.*; *.* Lux (*****)
  • **** *****(****** $***) -  **** *****-****; */*" ****; ********** **.*; *.* Lux (*****)
  • **** *****(****** $****) - *** */*; */*.*" ****; **.* ****;*.** *** (BW)
  • ***** ***-***(****** $***) - **** */*; */*" ***; **.* *****; *.* Lux (**)
  • ***** ***-***(****** $***) - ** */*; */*" ***; **.* *****; *.** Lux (**)
  • ********** *******(****** $***) - *** *****-****; */*" ****; **.* **********; *.* Lux
  • **** *****(****** $***) - **** */*; */*" ****; **.* *******; *.* Lux (**)

**** ** *** ***** ******* **** ************** ******** ** ** Exacqvision *** ****** *** (*) *** ******** *********. *** ******* are *** ** ***** ******** ****** **** ********* ****** ** night **** *** */* ******* **** ****** ** ***** **** to ****** *********** ** **********. *** ****** ****** **** ******** to * ******* **** ***** (~** *******) *** ********/******** ** their ******* ***********. ****** *** ********* ******** */* ******* **** forced **** */* ****.

**** *** *** *** ******* ******** *** **** ******:

  • **** ***** - ******** ***** '**'; ******** ******* '*********'
  • **** ***** - ******** ***** '**'; ******** ******* '*********'
  • ***** ***-*** - */*** *******; ****** **; *** ** '**'
  • ***** ***-*** -  */*** *******; ****** **; *** ** '**'
  • ********** ******* -*/** *******; *****-****
  • **** ***** - */*** *******; ****-**/** **; *** '******'

**** *** *** **** (*) *** ******** ********* ** ********:

  • ****** **** ******** - **** ******** ~*,*** ***
  • ********* - ********* ******** ****** **** ~* *** ** ~** lux

*** **** ******** ********, * ***** ******* ***** **** *** far ****** ** *** ***** ******* ~***** **** *** ****** rig. *** ***** ******* ***** ***** ***** ** **** ******* a '**********' ********* *** **** ******* ********* **** **** ** front. *** ******* ******** ** *** *** ** *** '********' crosswalk (~****). ******* ******** *** ****** **** *** ******* ******* that ****** ****** *** ******* ** *** ***** *******'* ******* from '***' ** '****'.

Methodology (****-************)

*** ****-************ **** ***** ** ******** *****-**** **** ********** *** HFoV ~*/* ** ******* ** ************. *** ********* ****** ** used *** *** ****-************ ****:

  • **** *****(****** $****) - ****; */*" ****; **** **.* - **.*; 0.2 *** (**); *.* *** (*****)

**** **** ******* ** *** (*) *** ******** ********:

  • ****** **** ******** - **** ******** ~*,*** ***

*** **** ******** ********, * ***** ******* ***** **** *** far ****** ** *** ***** ******* ~***** **** *** ****** rig. *** ***** ******* ***** ***** ***** ** **** ******* a '**********' ********* *** **** ******* ********* **** **** ** front. *** ******* ******** ** *** *** ** *** '********' crosswalk (~****). ******* ******** *** ****** **** *** ******* ******* that ****** ****** *** ******* ** *** ***** *******'* ******* from '***' ** '****'.

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