Actual Coronavirus Testing Options Examined

By Zach Segal, Published Nov 18, 2020, 11:50am EST

Fever cameras have emerged as an indirect and flawed way to test for coronavirus. But what about actual coronavirus tests that directly test for the disease?

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Inside this note, IPVM examines the 5 main types of coronavirus testing options:

  • PCR/Molecular
  • Rapid PCR
  • Saliva Based Molecular
  • Antigen
  • Antibody

We explain how they work, how long it takes to get results, how much they cost, how widely available they are, and what the projections are for improvements in such testing.

Can actual coronavirus testing provide a better solution than fever cameras? We examine inside.

Executive *******

* *********** ********** ********* exist:

  • ***/*********, *** **** ******** but *** **** ****** and **** ****-*********.
  • ***** *********, ******, *** Antigen *** *** ****** accurate ****** **** ******** than ***/********* *** *** be **** **** ** a ******* **** ***** (~15 *******).
  • ***** ******* *** **** less ******** (**** ************ people **** ****** ******* and ********** **** ****) but ***, ** ***, the *******.

**** ***** ***** *** varying ********** ******* *** approaches:

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********* *** ***** *** been ******* ** ** now, ****** *** ****** ***** ** **** to ***** **** ** see ***** **** ****** the **** ******. ** addition, ******** ***** ***** that **** ** ******* had *** *********** *** cannot ******** **.

Asymptomatic *** ************** ******

****** ***** *******, *********** tests *** ******** ** detect ***** **** *** virus **** ** **** are ************ ** **************. People ***** **** ********** ** the *** **** ****** symptoms.*** ****** ********* **** ******* 80%** ****** **** **** cases ** *** ************. So, **** ********** ****** may *** **** ********. This ***** *********** ***** can ***** **** ********** individuals **** ***** ******* will ****.

Common *********/*** ****/***** ****/******* **** *************

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*** **** ****** **** type ** *********/*** ***** which ********* ********, *********, ****, uncomfortable, *** ****** **** supply *********. **** *** ********* the **** ******** ****** for ********** *********** *** are *** ****** *** screening ** ******** *******. They *** ******* **** Amplification ** ******* *** amount ** *********** ** a ******, ****** **** more ********. ***, ************* causes *** ***** ** be *********, ********-*********, *** time-consuming. * *** ***** process * **** ** an ****, *** ******* need ** ** ***** to *** *** *** backlogs *****, ******* ******* to ***** **** **** after *******. **** *** also ************* ******* * nasal **** ***** ** be ******** **** **** the ****. ****,****-************ ******** *** ** ******** as ************** ************, ******* people ** *** *** the **** *** ****** up ***** *****. **** means ******** ******* ******** medical ************* *** ****** be *******-****. ** ** unclear *** **** ***** tests **** ** ************** carriers, *** **** *** currently *** **** ******** option.

*** *******,*** *** *** ***** PCR ********* *** '******'.

Debate **** **** ** * ******** ******

***** *** ***** *** the **** ********, ******* debate ****** **** **** level ** ******* ****** count ** ******** ******* for ***********.*** ******* *** ******** by*** ****** ** ************* cycles (**) ******** *** the ***** ** ** detected. ***** ******* **** more *****, *** * decrease ** ** ** 1 *********** ** * roughly ******** ** *** viral ****. **, * CT ** ** ***** someone *** ******* ***** the *********** **** ** a ** ** **. This **** ******* ***** that *** ******* **** amplification. **** ***** ***** any ***** ***** ** as * ******** ******, but**** ***** **** ** too****.* ****-******** ***** ********* **’* ***** ** was *** *** *** the ***** ** ********* in * ***, ********* that ***** ****** **** not **********. ***, ****** **** ***** ******** that******* ******* *********** ***** cutoffs ** **-** ** below **. **** ** significant, ******* * ******** of ******** ******* *** be **** *********** *** are ** ****** **********, who **** **’* ***** 30 ** **. ** means **** ********* *** being ****** ** ******* tracing *** ********* *** people *** *** ** longer **********.

FDA ********** ****** ******* ** ******** ************

*** *** *** *** is ************ ******** ******* ************ is ****** *** *******, where ******* ******* *** combined *** *** **** individually ****** ** *** batch ***** **** ********, but **** **** ***** if *********** ***** *** low (***** **** **** less **** *% ** tens ** *******). ******* allows ******** ******* ** be ********* ** ****, hypothetically ********** *** ******* capabilities ** *** *.*. But, ** *** ******** rate ** *** ****, enough ***** **** ** be ****** ************ **** pooling ******** ********* ******* capabilities *** **** *****. While ******* *** ****** in **** *****, **** positive ***** ******** ** ***************** ** parts ** *** *.*.

Rapid *** *****

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***** ***** *** ***** are ******* ** *********** PCR ***** *** ********* on * ******* *****, so ******* *** ******* and ***** ** **** for *********.***** ***** ***** *** less ******** **** *********** PCR ******** * ******** ****** does *** *********** **** out ***********.** ******* (**-** *******), ***********, and *** ** **** with ******** *********.

Rapid *** **** ************

*** *** *** ************ ***** ***** *** tests, ********* *** ** home, *** ************ *** *** ********** ************* ********** ********, however, ************ *** ** limited. ********* ********** *** ********* *** authorization *** ** ************ only. *** ***** ***** overviews *** ******* *** the ****** ****:

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*******, *** **** ******** a ************ *** ******** time, **, ***-**-*** **** could **** ** ***** or ****. ****** *** ***** ***** is **** *** **** may *** ** *********.

*** **** ******* ****:

****** ****** **** *** tests **** ******** ** initially **** *** ** California *** ******* "** the **** ******." *** kits **** **** ** widely ********* ****** *** country ** ****** **** at * ***** *** of $**.

Saliva ***** ********* *****

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******-***** ********* ***** *** being ******** ** ** inexpensive, ****, ****** ******** solution **** *** ** used *** ********* *** accuracy ** ******.** *** *******, *** best **** ******************** ******* *** ***** and *** ***** ********* similarly ** ******* ***** PCR *** ******* *****, indicating ******** ****** ******* and ** *** ** good ** *** **** PCR *****. **** *** fast (*-** *******) *** could **** **** **** $1 ****** **** **** accessible. **** *** **** reliant ** ******** *********, which ***** ******* ****** shortages. ****, ****** ***** are *********** *** ******* are **** *** ****** to **** **********. **** means **** ** ******* testing ** ********, *** health ************* *** *** needed *** **********. ** also ***** **** ****** who ******* ***** ***** and ***** ***** **** require **** ***** *** tested **** ******-***** ********* tests.

Saliva **** ************

***** ***** ******-***** ***** **** FDA***,* **** ************* *************, **** ********* *** *** selling**-**** ***** ** *** U.S.****, *** *.*. *****,********* ** ******** ********** ***** ** ********* who ******* **** *** have ***********, ** ******* locations ****** *** *****.

Antigen *****

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******* ***** **** ****** accuracy *** *** ****** and ******* **** *** tests *** *** ** done ******* *** *** equipment.******* **** ******** ********** **% - **% in ********** ********, ** it ** ********* ** know **** **** *** is *****. **** **** for ******** ********** **** coronavirus *** ** *** involve *************. ***** *** displayed ** * **** strip, **** **** * pregnancy ****, *********** *** need *** ********* ********* or ******* *************.

Antigen ******* ************

***** *** ********** ******* ***** **** FDA ***,** **** ************* ***********************, *** **** ****** for ***** *****. * of *** * ******* tests **** ******** ** October *** **** *** approved *** **-**** ***. And,*** *.*. ********** *** purchased *** ************ ******* ***** ** increase *** *********** ******* capabilities ** *** ****** State **** ***** ****. However, ****** *** ***** tests ** **** *** they *** *** ** available.

Benefits ** **** ******** ***** *******

*********** ***** ***** *** find ***** *********** *** testing ***** **** ******* traditional *** ***** *** too ****, ******-***********, *** cost-prohibitive *** ******** *******. They *** **** ** used *** *********, ***** could **** **** ********* facilities. ************** *** ************ individuals **** ** **** likely ** **** ***** tests, *** ***** *********** are *** **** ********* people ** ****. **** if **** *** **** accurate **** *********** *** tests, ***** ***** *** more ******** **** ** testing. *******, **** ** a **** ****** * case, * ******-** **** could ***** **. *********** PCR ***** *** *** inaccessible *** ******** *******, but **** ** ***** rapid ***** ***** ** taken ********** ** ****** populations. ****** *** ***** molecular, ******, ** ******* tests *** *** ***** may ** **** ******** than * ****** *********** molecular ****, *******, **** accessible, *** ***** **** a ********** ****** ** time. ****, *** ********** in ******** *** ** overstated ******* ** *** high ** ********* *** tests **** ******* **** Amplification ***. ******** *** results **** **-****** ********** individuals *** ** *********** counted ** ***** ********* for ***** *******, ******* of ***** ********* *** PCR *****.

Slovakia, ** *** **** ***** *******

******** *** *** ***** **** ******* *******, uncovering ********* ** *** cases. ** ********, */**** of *** **********, ****** everyone ******* **-**, (*.* million ******) **** ****** on *** ******* ** October **** ***** ***** antigen *****.**** ******* ********* **,*** new *****, ****** ** **** as *** **,*** ******** PCR ******* *** ***** since *** ***** ** the ********. ***** ************ ******* **** antigen******* ** *********, ***** they ****** **** ********* uncovering *** *** *******-**** cases, *** **** ** expanding **** *******.

NBA **** ***** ******* ***** **** ******** ** ******

**** ******, *** ****** CEO, **** ***** ******* ***** ******* could ***** **** ** attend *****:

* ** ***** **'* realistic ... ***** **** been *********** ************ ** rapid ******* ***** *** onset ** *****-**. **'** fairly ********** **** *** market **** ******** **** and ****** ***** ** faster *******. ***** *** be ************* ** *** context ** ** *****, particularly ** *** ***** bowl, ***** ***** ** an ******** ***** **** allows *** **.

Antibody *****

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********/***** ***** ****** ***** someone *** *********** ** the ****,*** **** *** *** used ** ******** ****** cases. ******** ***** *** fast *** ********** ******** but **** ** *** work **** ***** *-* weeks ***** *********** ***********. In ********, ***** ** no *** ** *************** between ******* *** *** an ****** ********* *** someone *** *** ** active ********* ** *** past. **** ***** ******** tests *** *** *********** useful ** ***********. ******** tests *** * **** way *** ****** ****** officials ** ******** *** percent ** * ********** that *** *********** ** the ****, ******** ********* to ****** ****** ******* models.

** ** ********* ** remember **** * ******** result *** ******** ** active *********, ** ****** should *** ***** * positive ****** ** ********. Do *** *** **** you ****** ****** ***********, just ******* *** **** a ******** ******** ****.

Cough *****

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** *** **** ********** * ***** ***** test **** *** ******** ~97% ********** ********** ***** *** works ** ************ ********. The **** ******** **** the **** **** ********** intelligence ** ******* ****** coughs. **** *** **** achieved * **.*% **** positive **** * **% true-negative **** ** ********** who *** ***** ********* PCR *****. ***, **** they **** **** ** achieve * ***% **** positive **** ** ************ patients **** * **% true-negative ****. **** ** more ******** **** **** of *** ***** ******* methods *********. *** **** does *** ******* ******* or ******* *****, *** will *** **** ** noises **** *** *** cough. *******, *** **** noted **** ****** *** affected ** ********, ***, and ******* ** ******* could ****** **** ********* demographics:

***** ***** *** ******** and *** *********** ** coughs, ****** **** ***** also ***** ** ********* the ***** ** ********* age ****** *** ******* of *** ***** ***** the ******** ********, *** possibly ********* ***** ****** or ***** ********** **** as ****** ** ******* language ******* ************

*** **** **** **** are ********** **** * Fortune *** ******* *** more ******* *** **********. This ***** ** **** into ** *** *** mass *** *********** **** screening *** ** *** currently ********** ********* ** FDA ********.

How *** * *** ******?

******* *** ** ******** through ****** ****** ******, private ******* *******, *** certain ********.***** *** ******* ***** distributed ********** ** ******* centers ** ******* ******* systems ***** **** ***** require *************. ** ********,* ************ ******* **-**** ***** (PCR ** ******) **** you **** **** *** a ****** ** *** U.S. **** **** ******* $109-$155 ********* ** ***** ******* by ************** *** ***** ***. However,*********** **** ***** ****-************** ***** ** ** less ******** **** ****-********* swabs, **, *** ** a *** *******, ******** could **** *** ** improper *********.** ********, ******* **** centers *** ******* *****.

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**** ** ***** ******* are ** ******** *** to ********* ********* ***** for ***** (****** ***** to ** ****-******).******* ** ******* ** at ***** ** ********** *** *.*. *** 10 **** ****** *** world.******* ****** ** ******** a******* ** *** ********* travelers **** * ***** test ******* ** * full **-*** **********. ** addition,**** *** ***** **** to ****** ************ *** *** *** Helsinki-Vantaa *******.

Example ** ***** *** ***** **** ** ** ****** ** ***** ****: *********, **, ***

******* ** ************ ************ * ****** ****** for ************ *** *** state **** ** **** tests ********** ** *** who **** ****. ** get ****** ** ************, residents ****** ****** **** out ****** ******* *************. ***** ******** *** symptoms, ** ** **** are *******, **** *********** *** **** ******** *** **** ******** they ****. *******, **** should ****** *********** ***** **** ****** ******* centers ** ******** * test. *** ******* **** to *** **** ******* facility ** *** ************ Avenue ***.*** **** *** * questionnaire** ********* ***********, *** currently, **** ****** ** risk, **** ********, **** factors, ** ******** ******** are ******** *** *******.*** **************-*** ******* *** ***** tests (***** **** ******* availability) *** *-* *** typical **** ***** *** lab *****, **** *** tests. **** **** ***** tests **** “********* *******”, and * ***** **** was *** ********* *** a ******* **** ***** and ******** ********, **** Bethlehem. *******, ***** **** 24 ****** ********* *** a *** ****, **** expected **** ***** ** 2-3 ****.

Corporate *********

** ** ******** *** large ************ ** ****** relationships **** **** (** their *** ***) *** at ***** *** ******* is ********* ***** ** smaller ************.***** ******** *** ************* *** **** ****** and ***** ****, ** ensure ***** ********* *** get ******, ********* ***** *** *** lab *** ******** *** ******* **,*** tests * ***, *** *** ******* companies, ***** *** ***** options. ** *** **,********* ********* ******* *********** solutions ********* *** *** antibody *****. *******'* ******** will ****** **** **** than ********** ***** ******* of ****, *** **** still ** ********** *********, take ******* **** ** process, *** ** **** at ****, ******** *** suffer *** ** ******** sample **********.

More ***********

**** ** ******** ** a ******* ************. *** more *********/******* ****, **** at ********** *** ********** New *********** (****) * *** ************* non-profit **** ** ******** Coronavirus ***** *** ********* their ********. ****, *** accuracy ** ********* **** real-life ********, ***** ******** complicated **********.**** *** ******* ******* of ******** *************** ******** ** ******* and *** * ***** that *** **** *** interpret **** * ******** test ****** ***** ***** on *** ****'* ******** and **** ********** ** being ********.

*******

**** ******* ******* ********* thousands ** ******* ***** in ******** *** *** UK, ** **** ********* may ******* **** ***** testing. ******* ******** ********* is ***** ***** ****, although *** *** **** they *** *********** ** to ****** ********. ***,*** ******** **** ***** promising ********* *** ***** ****** of *******, ********* *** pandemic ***** ** ********** in *** **** ****.

[**** *** ********** ****** in ****** **** *** substantially ******* ** ******** 2020 ** ******* *** developments.]

Comments (32)

* ********** *** ***** lists ********** ***** ****. Meanwhile *** ******* ***** with *** ********* **** fever ******* *** ** indirect *** ****** *** to **** *** ***********.

** ***** ***** ** useful ** ******* ***** cameras *** ***-******* *********** in * ********************* ******* **** ********* the ***********. ** ***** be ** *** ****** for **** ******** ******.

****** *** *** ****. We've ******* *** *****.

********

***** ***.

********* ** *** ************ user *********** ** ******* reason **** ***** **** a ***** ********.

*********? ****...

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******* **** ********* ******* can ** ***** ** a ****** ******** ** corona ***** ******* **** may ** ********* ** a ***** *** ******? Hint: ****** ** **** a *** ****.

**** - *** ***** Blocked **********

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***** ****, ****! ***** a *** ********* (********* Russia, ************, *** *******) *** currently ********* ********* ** present ******** *** ***** to **** *********. (**** is * ***** *** article ** *** ***** as ** ******* ** U.S. ********, ** *** updated ** ***** **** in **** *** *** not **** ******* ** over *** *****.)

***** ************* ************ *** still **** ** ** tourists | *** ******

*** **** *** **** you **** ********* ** a ********* ** *****-** travelers, **** ****** ********* requesting **** ******* *** older **** ** ** in **** ***** ** hours **** *******.

"*** ****** ********* **** ******* 80%** ****** **** **** cases ** *** ************."

** **** ** ****, and * **** ***** I **** **** ***** studies **** *** *******, then **** ***** '***** cameras' *** ** *** greatest **** ** *** century.

****** **** **% ** infected ****** ** *** have * ************ ****** temperature ** ******* * 'fever ******'. **** ****** at **** **% *** could ** ********.

*** ********* ************** ** many (****?) '***** *******' means ***** ********** ** further *******, ** * guess ** **% ** more. **** ****** ** best * **% ***** rate. **** ** ******* reduced ******* **** ****** have * ********* ***** body *********** & **** they **** * ***** their **** **** **** up ** **** ** considered ** ** *** normal *****.

** ** ******** ***** we ****** ***** ********* that **** ***** **% of *** ****? ***** we ****** * ****** install **** **** ******* 10% ** *** ****?

** * ********* ****** scenario, ***** ** ****** a ****** ******* **** only ******* **% ** people ******* ** * hole?

**** *** * **** had **** ************ ******* times. ******** *** ********* stated *****, ** ***** are *** ****** ** a ***** ** *,*** who **** *********** *** you **** *** ****** of ******** ** ** them ** **** ** them ** ***, ***** option ***** *** ******?

*************, ***** *** ****** of *** *****, **** people *** **** **** happy ** ****** ********* of ******* **** * solution **** ** '*****' cameras **** *** *** sake ** ******** ******** those ** ******** ***********.

******** * ***** **** you ******, ** ** better ** ***** ***** 10. ******* *** ********* BS **** '***** *******' implies * ***** ******* success **** **** *** possibly ** ******** ** the **** *****.

**** * **** ****** every ****** ********* ** selling ***** ******* ** lying ** *** *** users, ****** ** ******** to **** *** **** story, ** ** ****** outright ********** ******.

* ********** ***** **** you. ** * ***** private ******* ****** ** buy *** '*****' ******* and *** **** ** the ******* ** *****, then **** ***** *** be *** **********.

** *** **** ****, it ** ********* ** see ********* *******, ** least ****** *** ********, from ****.*. ******* *******, ** ************ *********, ****** ************* ***** ******* ** the ****** ** ********* solutions, *** ******* **-***** ** ************* for ********* ********.

*** ****** ** ***** sold *** **** **** these ******* **** ***** anyone *** ******** ******* with **** * ****** fever, ***** ** ******* the **** *** ******** closer ** *** */** that *** ******* *****, if ****.

*'* ***** ** **** to *** **** ******** brings ** *** *****.

** *** ******* **** - **** ** * really ***** ******* ****. The ******* *** ***** make **** ***** **** highly ********** (*** ***** positives *** *********). ** is **** ** **** some ****** ** ******* to ***** ***** *** accurate *** ***** *** hygiene *******.

* ***** *** *** is ***** *******, *****, and **** ** *****. I **** *** ******* who *** **** **** exposed, **** *** ** wait *** *** ******** carrier ** *** ******* before **** *** ******, so ******* **** ** lost ****.

** **** * ******** locally ******* ** *** saliva **** *** **** past *** ******. **** used ***** *** ********* on * ****** ***** for ******* *** "****". From **** * **** it ***** *********. *** one ***** * ***** from ******* *** *** done *** ****** **** is ***** **** ** actually ******* ****** ****** for *** ****. *** have ** *** *** or ***** ******** *** 30 ******* ****** *** give *** ******.

* *** *** ***********, "Let's ***** **** ***** Test", **** **** ** I *** ******* ******** for * *** ** days *** *** ******** a ******* *** **** prior. * **** * mask *** ***** **** except ** *** ** drink. *** ***** *** was *** *** ***** for *** ****** ** people. * **** **** a *** ********* ****** any *** *** ** it **** ***** ** go ***** **** *** test. *********** *** **** came **** ********.

**** **** ** **** all ***** ***** **** get ****** *** ****** as **** ******* ** done *** **** ******* are ********* *** *********.

*** *** **** ******* tests *** ************ ** the *** *****. ** *** *** reach *** ** *** NBA ** *** *** they **** **** ******* testing ******* ** ******-***** molecular *******, *** ** is *********** ** ****.

*** ****** ********* *** process:

**** ******** ******* ** a ******** **** ** the ***** ******** ** hand **** ******* ******* and ******* ************. **** we ********* **** * testing **** *** *** coronavirus ***** ****. ** results **** **** -- negative -- ** ** minutes. **** *** ********** an ******* **** -- slightly **** ******** **** the **** ****** *** molecular ****, ***** ** a *** ***** ******** results, *** ********* **** faster. ** *** **** masks *** *** ********* of *** **** ** the ******* ****.

******* ******,****** ********* * ****(** *******) - $* antigen ****, **** *****'* require *** *********. **** are ********* ******* ** production ** ******* ** million ***** * ***** and **** ********* *** Authorization **** *** ***.

** ** ***** **** based, ** *** ******** testing * ******* ************ will **** ** **** the ****. **** ***** be **** ** ********, drs *******, ***. *** could **** **** * nurse ** **** ** door ******* * ********** dorm ** ***** ********* complex ** ****.*** **** and **** ** *** equiptment ** **** *******.

*'** ******* *** ******* to ******* *********** ** the ****** **** **** should ***** ** * positive *** ******. **** argue **** *** ********* is *** ***, *** no-longer ********** *********** *** getting ******** **** *******.

* **** ******* *** article ********** *.*. ********** *** purchased *** ************ ******* ***** ** increase *** *********** ******* capabilities ** *** ****** States. ********* ** *****, the ************, **** **** 15 *******, ***** **** PCRT ***** **% ** the ****, *** ******* a ******* **** ****. These ***** *** **** approved ** ****** **** symptoms.

******: ** *** **** has******* * ***** ***** test **** *** ******** ~97% ********** ********** ***** *** works ** ************ ********. The **** **** ***** of * ****** ***** and *** ** ********* remotely ******* ******* *******.

**** ** **** ** funny ******* **** ** March, **** ********* **** were *** ** *** first ***** ** ***********-******* malware. * ******** ****** all ** ********* ** avoid *********** ********* **** because ****** *** **** phones, ***. ** ****** that *** **** **** fever ********* ****** ******. Amazing *** ****** ******.

** ***** ** ****** nice ** **** ***** test ***** ***. ***** almost ***** *** **** to ** ****.

** **** **** ****** and ********* ***** **** outside ** ***** *******.

****** ******** ***, ****: More **-**** ***** *** available ** *** *.*.,* *********, ** **** * in ******. ******* ***** ** ******* kinds **** ******** *** emergency *** *************. ***** *** ********** ******* ***** **** FDA ********* *** *************. * ** ***** were ******** ** *******.*** *** *** ******** test *******, ***** ******* *** combined *** **** ****** individually ** *** ******** test ***** **** ********, to ******** ******* ************. However, **** ******** ***** have **** **** ******** counterproductive ** *** **** pools **** ** ** retested ************.******** *** *** ** are ***** ***** ******* tests *** **** *******. *********** ****** *** ***** are ******** *********** ********** ******, ********* ***** of ****, *** ** help ********** **** ***** requirements.

******: ** **** ***** an *********** ** *** someone ***** ** ****** in *********, **, ***; where ****'* ******* ********** are *******; ** ** example ** *** ******* could **** *** *** to ** ******.

** **** ******* *** article ** *** ******* *** *** ************* ***** **-**** ***** test ********** ******.****** **** ******* ****** take ** ******* **** the **** *******, *** it ***** ** ** prescribed ** * ****** and *********, **** ** which **** ****. ****, it ** * ***** swab ****, *** ***** lab ******** *** ****,****-********* ***** ***** **** been ***** ** ** less ************ ************** ********* ***** due ** ******** **********.

** **** ***** *******, * ******* ************** is ******* *** **** distribution ** ******* *******, key ******:

** *** *** *** on*****-**, ** **** * multi-pronged ****** ****** ******** that ******** * ******** testing **** **** ******** widespread ******** ***** ******* tests ** **** *** spread ** *** *****.

*****-***** ******* ***** *** inexpensive, ****** ** ***********, give ******* ****** *******, and *** ** **** within *** ******* ** our *** ****

** **** **% ** the ********** ****** ********** in **** *** ***** 4 ****, ** *** achieve *******-**** “**** *******” (which ** **** ****** transmission ** *** ***** across *** ********** ****** sustain ******—**** ****** **** from * ****—*** *** outbreak *********). ****** ********, which **** ****** ************ through ********, ******* *** do **** ** ****** people *** ***** ** know, ** ****-****, **** they *** ********** *** thus **** ********** **** unknowingly ********* ** ******.

** **** ****** **** the *** ** ****** difficulty ********* / ******** it:

*******, ** *** *.*., the *** ****’* ******* out * *** ** authorize *** **-**** ***** antigen ***** ******* *** FDA ** **** ** regulating ******* *******, *** public ****** ********* *****.

*************, ** * *** interview ******* **** ****, he ******** ******* ******* to *********** *********** ** a ****** *********** ** rapid, ******** *********:

*** **** *****, *********, despite *** ********, * don't *** ***** ** widespread ******* ******* ***** close.

** ** *********** **** 7 ******* ********* *** ********* **************** ***** ** ******* **** ************* ***********************, *** ***** ***** ******-***** ***** **** FDA*.*.*. (********* * *** *** take ** ****) *** ** **** found* **** ************* *************.

******:*********** (*****-**) ******: *** Authorizes ******* **** ** First ****-***-******* ***** **-**** Diagnostic **** *** *****-** | ***

******* ***** *******:*** ********** ****** *****-** Home **** ** ***** Over-the-Counter ***** **-**** ********** Test | ******

** ***** ********:*** **-**** ***** **** Gets ***** ***** **** F.D.A. - *** *** York *****, *******:

**** ***, ***** ***** a ****** **** ******, is ******** ** **** about $** ** ****

******’* **** ****** **** a ****-********* ***** ****. (Children ******* **** ** must ** ******* ** an *****.) ******* **** a *********, *** ****** is ********, **** *** data ** ****** ** a ********** *** *********. The ******* ** ** the ****** ****** *** test, *** *** ** shared **** ****** **** providers *** ****** ****** authorities.

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