Video Surveillance Cameras 101

By: IPVM Team, Published on Feb 25, 2020

Cameras come in many shapes, sizes and specifications. This 101 examines the basics of cameras and features used in 2020.

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In this report, we review the basics of cameras, including:

  • Core components of cameras
  • Analog vs. IP cameras
  • Common components
  • Form factors
  • Resolution
  • Video quality concerns - Day, Night, Sunlight, Shadows
  • Bandwidth basics

******* **** ** **** shapes, ***** *** **************. This *** ******** *** basics ** ******* *** features **** ** ****.

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** **** ******, ** review *** ****** ** cameras, *********:

  • **** ********** ** *******
  • ****** **. ** *******
  • ****** **********
  • **** *******
  • **********
  • ***** ******* ******** - Day, *****, ********, *******
  • ********* ******

[***************]

Core ********** ** *******

***** ****** *** * core ********** - ****, imager *** ***********.

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****** ******* ****

*** **** ********** *** wide ** ****** * view *** ****** **** capture, ******** ** ***** of ****. **** *** identified ** ***** ***** length, ***** ** ******** in *********** (*.*., *.***, 8mm, ****, ***.), **** smaller ***** ******* ********* wider ***** *** ****** focal ******* ********* ******** areas. *** ******* ***** ****** *********** **** *******.

**** *****

***** *** *** **** types ** ******, ***** and *********. ***** ****** are *** ** *** field ** **** *** cannot ** ******* ** fine ***** ** ******* the ******'* ****. ********* lenses ***** ***** ** adjust *** **** ** it *** ** ****** in ** ****** ******** is ******** ** ****** out ** ******* * wide ****.

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*********/********* ****** *** **** larger **** ***** ****** and **** ** **** room, ********* ** ****** overall ****** ****, ***** here **** ** ****:

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Imagers ******* *****

*** ******'* ****** ** the ********* ***** ******** captures *** ***** ******* in ** *** ****, also ****** ** ***** sensor ** ****** ******. The ****** ******** * grid ** ****** ***** capture *** ********* ** light *** ******** **** information ** *** ******'* processor.

******* *** ********* ******** to ** ********* ** an ****, ******** ********** from ****** ** ******, e.g. */*", */*", ***., with **** ******* ***** using ******* ******* */*" and */*".

Imager ***** **** ***********

*** **** ** *** pixels ********* ** ** imager ****** ******, ********* on *** ******'* **** and **********. *** ****** being *****, *** ****** the ******, *** ****** the ****** ** ********. However, ** *** *** more ****** (*.*., ***** from ***** ** ***) and *** ****** **** stays *** ****, *** pixel **** *********.

***********

*** *********** ** *** portion ** *** ****** which ***** ***** ** the ******** ** ******, either ********** ** ** Ethernet ** ** ******* or **** * **** definition ****** ****** (******** below). **** ********* ***** be ********* ******** ** the ******, ** ******** to *** *** ** a ****** ** ***** (called ****** ****).

*** *******, *** *** cameras ***** *** **** similar ** ************, **********, etc., *** *** ******* video *** ******** *** the ***** ****** ***** a *** *********.

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Analog ** ** *******

***** ****** *** ** cameras **** *** **** core **********, *** *********** distinction ******* *** *** camera ***** ** ******** - ** ******* **** video ******** *****-**, ****** cameras ** ***.

**** ********** "******" ******* in **** *** ******, typically ** *** ********* to ** ******, ***** is * ******* **** for ******* ***** ******** HD ***** (**** ** 4K *********) **** ******** coax ******. *** **** advantages ** ***** ****** over ** ******* *** the ******* ** *** existing **** ******* (****** upgrades *******) *** ***** average ****.

*******, ** ******* ********* offer * ***** ********* of **** ******* *** features. *****, *********, *** I/O *** **** ******** in ** ****** ******, but ****** ** **. Additionally, ** ******* *** be ********* ******** ** the *******, ******* ** requiring * **** *** to * ******** ***** coax *****.

*** **** ******* ** our** ****** ** ** Guide.

Common **********

*** ** *******, ***** constitute *** ************ ******** of ******* ******** ** 2020, *** **** *********** way ** ** ******** is ** *** * 'system ** * ****' typically ****** * ***.

* *** ** * single **** (***** *****) contained ** *** ****** which *********** ********* ** its "*****", *********** ***** processing, *********** *** ********, network ******, *******, *****, analytics, *** ****. *** cameras *** **** **** of ***, ******* ** or ******.

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**** *** ******* ****** of ******* ** *** of ***** **** ****** and ******** *** ******* without ***** **** *********** of *** ******. ******, this *********** ********* ***** the ******'* ******** *** is ***** **** *** demonstration!

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**** ***** ****, ** you ********** **** ** confirm **** **** ** inside **** ******(*), *********** may ** **** **** option. ** *********** **** process ** ******** ******* in **** ******:*** ** *** ** Your ****** **** ****** Hisilicon *****.

********** ******** (**)

**** ******* ******* ***** in ******** ************ ***** add ***** ** *** scene ** ******* *** light ****** ******* ****** visible ***** ** *** area.

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*** ****** ** ******** images *** ****** *******. The ******** ** **** only ***** *** ***** images *** ******** **** IR *** **** ************ may ***** ************. ** discuss ***** ****** ** more ****** *****.

*****

**** ******* ******* ***** capability, ***** *** ** in ******* ********* *****, including *****-** ***********, *****/****** jacks, ** *********.

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*****-** **** *** ********* regarded ** *** ******** method ** ********* ***** as **** ** *** require ********** ************ ** external ****, *** **** are ********* ***** ********** (noisier *** ***** ***********) than ******** ******* ***** mics.

***** ********** ****** ****** users ** ****** * purpose ***** *** *********** to *** ************, **** as ****** ********* **** mount, ******** *******, ********* form ******, ***.

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**** **** ***** ***** is ********** ******** ** cameras, ** ** ****** used. ** *** ** and *********,******** *************** ***** ********* **** be ***, *** ***** the ***** ***** ******** must ******** ******* ** the *********.

** ***** ***** ****** in **** ****** ******** ************ *****.

******* *******

**** ** ******* ******* on ***** ******* ******* *****, ******** ***** ** be ****** ******* ** the ****** (********** *******).

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***** *** *** **** ways ** ***** **** recording:

  • **** ****/** ***/***:**** ******* *** ** used ** *** **** storage, **** ** ******* NVR/VMS, ********* **** ******* *******.
  • ********* *********:** ** *** ** used *** **********, ********* to *** ****** ***** the ******* ** **** and *** ******** ****** be *******, **** ********* when ******* ************ ** restored.

**** *****, ***** **** cameras ******* ** *******, it ** *** ****** used. ** **** ********** have ************ ******* *** only * *** ****' recording, ***** **** **** drives **** ** **** allow *** ***** ** months. ************, ***** ******** of **** ********* ******** from *************** ******, ***** *** ** a **** ** ***** in *** **********.

*******, **** ************* **** begun ***** **** ******* as **** ** ***** end-to-end ***** ******* *******, such *******************. ***** ************* ***** video ** *** ****** and ***** ***** ** retrieve ** *** *** cloud, ******* ** ********* all ***** ** ** stored ** *** *****.

*********

**** **** **** ** modern ** ******* ******* support *** ***** ********* on *****, *** *** quality ** ***** ********* has ************ **** ****** weak, **** ******** ***** alerts ** *******, ******, etc. (*** ***** ****** ********* ********).

*******, *** **** **** AI ******* ***** ** have ***** ** ****** this, **** ******** *********** in ******* **********. ************, more ******** ********* **** as ****** *********** *** vehicle ************** *** *** built **** **** ****. We ****** ** *** this ***** ******** ** more **** ******* ****** available *** ********* ****** decrease.

*** *****/***** ****** *********** **** ******* ** the ****** ** *********.

Form *******

******* *** ********* ** several ********* **** *******, with *****, *******, *** bullets *** ***** **** common *****. ***, ****, covert, *** **** ******* cameras *** **** *********, but **** ******.

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**** ** ***** **** factors *** *** *** pros *** ****:

  • *****: *****' **** ********** are ******** ********** *** better ************ ** *******/****** options **** ******, *** generally *** ******* ** longer **** ******* ******** to *****/******* *** **** be ********* ******* ********* ***** ******* ******.
  • *******: ******* *** **** most ******, **** *** main ********* ** ****** IR ***** **** ***** (generally, *** ******) *** more ***** ********** *** greater **********. *******, **** are ****** ** ***** out ** ******** *** typically *** **** ****** rated, ****** *****.
  • *******: ******* *** * relatively *** ******* ** dome ***** ***** *** imager *** ** ************ into * ********* ******. These ****** ********* **** the **** ********** *** disadvantages ** *****, *** may ** **** ********* to ** ***** *** dirt/scratches **** ***** *** to *** ******* ******* area.
  • ***: *** ******* ******* advantage ** ***********, **** the ******* ** ****** lenses ** ***** **** wide ** **** ****** areas, ******* **** **** or ****** ******. *******, they *** **** ******* to *******, ********* * separate ********* *******, *** have ******* ************* ** bullets ** ************** ** vandalism *** **********.
  • *****: ***** *** *********** mini *** ******* ******* the ******* ** ****** lenses, *********** ***** **** advantage. *******, ***** ***** see **** *** ** lower **** ** *** installations.
  • ******/**** ******* *******: ***** form ******* *** ********* used **** ** *** specialized ************ **** *** intended ***, **** ** hiding *** ****** ** walls/ceilings/doorframes, ** ****** ******* entry ******. ***** ******** have *****, *** ****** niche.

*** **** ******* ** these **** ******* *** their ********** *** *************, see ********* **** ****** *****.

**********

*** ****** ************** ******* cameras ** **********. * camera ************'* ******** ********** is ***** ** *** physical ****** ** ****** in *** ******, **** called ***** ***** (*** the ****** ********* ***** of *** ******). **** is **** ***** ********* in **********, *** ****** of ******** ** ****** (e.g., * *********, ***, 8MP, ***.), ****** **** use ******** ** ***********, such ** ***** ** 4K.

*** **** ****** ********** in *** ***** ** 4MP, *****, ********* ********, offers *** ******** ******* of ***** *******, ***** count, *** *** ***** and *** *********** (********* below). ******* **** ********** **********:

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*** ***** ***** ********** the **** ****** *********** used ** ********** ***** surveillance *********** *****. **** that *** ** ** longer ****** ****** ********* *******, *** ** ******** here *** ********* ** what '******** **********' ****** to.

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Video ******* ********

***** ******* ******** **** commonly ****** ** ***** or **** ****** * mix ** ******** *** shadows.

** *****, ****** *** simply ** ***, **** subjects ********* ** *** at ***, *** ***** capturing ****** ******* ** images *** ** **** noisy ******* ** **** levels ** ********** ******** to ******* ** *****. Finally, **** ******* *** blur ******** ** *****, due ** ************** ***** ************* ******* ********** ** ******* ** brighten ******.

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*** **** ****** ****** to ***** ****** ** to *** ********** **. However, ***** ****** ****** that **** ** ******* may ***** ****** **** blurry *******. ***, **** illuminators ********** ********, ******* out ******* ** ***** face *** *******.

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*** ***** ** *** the **** ***** ** watch *** ***. ****** which ******* * *** of ****** ***** *** shadows **** ***** ****** for **** *******, **** subjects ****** *** **** to *** ** *********** and ****** ***. ******* using**** ******* ***** (***)********** ******* ** **** out *** ******** ****** the ****** *****, ****** details **** ******* *******.

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Bandwidth ******

*********** *** ************ ***** is ********** ******* ******* and ******* ******* ***** easily ** **** ******* if ** *** **** uncompressed. *********** *********** ***** that *** ******'* *** encodes ****** *** ****** of ******* ****** **** a ******* ****** ** reducing *** *********** ********* or ******** ****.

** ************, ******** **** often **** *.*** ** H.265 ****** (***********/************* *******). These ****** ******** *********, by ******* *** ***** image, ****** ** *-*****, followed ** * ***** of ******* ******** (*-******) that ******* **** ***** in *** ******'* **** which **** *******.

** * ****** *******, a ****** ****** ***** be ******* ** *** whole ***** ** *** person, ******** ** *** waving ***, ** *** person's **** **** *** move.

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** ********, *********** ** not ***** **** ******, but *******. *** **** details ** *** ****** work, *** *************** ***** *****.

** ******** ** ***** standard ******, ************* **** introduced ***** ******, * collection ** ******* ********** which ************* ****** *********** (example *****) *** ***** factors ** ****** *********.

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** *** *****, ***** codecs *** ****** ******** by ** **** ** 95%, * **** ****** on ********* *** ******* in ****** *******. ***** codecs *** ****** ******* with **** ******* ******* the ***** ** **** guide, *** ***** ****** be ***** ** ****. See ******** ***** ******** **** *******.

Widely **** ****** *************

*** *** ******* ****** manufacturers ** *** *****, based ** *** ****** of ***** ******** *** Hikvision *** *****. **** are ********, ******** ** the **** ** *** market, *** ********* ** more **** ***** ** large ** *****. ****** of *****, **** ********* are *** **** ****** used ****-*** ***** ************ camera *********. ** *** West, ******, ***** *** Hikvision ******* *** **** frequently **** ** *** and ************* ** ******* at ************* ***** ******.

*** * **** ******** used ***-***** ************ ****** manufacturers *** ***'* ******** (i.e., ***** ** ********), Japan's ***** (*.*., ***** of ****), *** ***** Korea's ****** ******* (******** Samsung). ******** ************** **** notably ** *********, **** on ******* *** ******* of *******, *** ****** on *****. ** *** 3, ****** ***** ******* in ***** ** ********.

***** *** **** ** the ****** ******* *** number ** ****** ************* in *** ****** (*.*.,**** ******), *****, *******, ********* (now *-***), *** * handful ** ***** ***-***** manufacturers ******.

****** ** *****, ***** Hikvision *** ***** ********, Uniview (***), ***, ******, Sunell, *** * ****** of ***** ************* ******** to *******, ************ ********** from ********* ********** ** Hikvision *** *****.

*******, **** **** ******, these *** ********* **** mostly ******* ******** ***** from ***** *************, **** commonly***** (*** *** *********)************ (*** *** *********).

************, ***** ************* *** competing ***** ** ************* analytics *** ***** / VSaaS.

Comments (4)

****** ** ********** ** your **** ****** *******.

******, *****. *** **** how **** *** ******* through.

****** ! ******, ******** forward ,*** *********** *** good *** ********** *** basics

* *** ****** *** initial **** *** *************/****** when *****-******* ********** **** out. ******* *** ** was ******* ******.

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