Video Surveillance Cameras 101

By IPVM Team, Published Feb 25, 2020, 10:24am EST (Info+)

Cameras come in many shapes, sizes and specifications. This 101 examines the basics of cameras and features used in 2022.

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In this report, we review the basics of cameras, including:

  • Core components of cameras
  • Analog vs. IP cameras
  • Common components
  • Form factors
  • Resolution
  • Video quality concerns - Day, Night, Sunlight, Shadows
  • Bandwidth basics

Core ********** ** *******

***** ****** *** * **** ********** - ****, ******, *** ***********.

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Lenses ******* ****

*** **** ********** *** **** ** narrow * **** *** ****** **** capture, ******** ** ***** ** ****. They *** ********** ** ***** ***** length, ***** ** ******** ** *********** (e.g., *.***, ***, ****, ***.), **** smaller ***** ******* ********* ***** ***** and ****** ***** ******* ********* ******** areas. *** ******* ***** ****** *********** **** *******.

Lens *****

***** *** *** **** ***** ** lenses, ***** *** *********. ***** ****** are *** ** *** ***** ** view *** ****** ** ******* ** fine ***** ** ******* *** ******'* view. ********* ****** ***** ***** ** adjust *** **** ** ** *** be ****** ** ** ****** ******** is ******** ** ****** *** ** capture * **** ****.

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*********/********* ****** *** **** ****** **** fixed ****** *** **** ** **** room, ********* ** ****** ******* ****** size, ***** **** **** ** ****:

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Imagers ******* *****

*** ******'* ****** ** *** ********* that ******** ******** *** ***** ******* in ** *** ****, **** ****** an ***** ****** ** ****** ******. The ****** ******** * **** ** pixels **** ******* *** ********* ** light *** ******** **** *********** ** the ******'* *********.

******* *** ********* ******** ** ** fractions ** ** ****, ******** ********** from ****** ** ******, *.*. */*", 1/2", ***., **** **** ******* ***** using ******* ******* */*" *** */*".

Imager ***** **** ***********

*** **** ** *** ****** ********* on ** ****** ****** ******, ********* on *** ******'* **** *** **********. All ****** ***** *****, *** ****** the ******, *** ****** *** ****** it ********. *******, ** *** *** more ****** (*.*., ***** **** ***** to ***) *** *** ****** **** stays *** ****, *** ***** **** decreases.

***********

*** *********** ** *** ******* ** the ****** **** ***** ***** ** the ******** ** ******, ****** ********** it ** ******** ** ** ******* or **** * **** ********** ****** format (******** *****). **** ********* ***** be ********* ******** ** *** ******, or ******** ** *** *** ** a ****** ** ***** (****** ****** ****).

*** *******, *** *** ******* ***** are **** ******* ** ************, **********, etc., *** *** ******* ***** *** Ethernet *** *** ***** ****** ***** a *** *********.

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Analog ** ** *******

***** ****** *** ** ******* **** the **** **** **********, *** *********** distinction ******* *** *** ****** ***** is ******** - ** ******* **** video ******** *****-**, ****** ******* ** not.

**** ********** "******" *******, ********* ** are ********* ** ** ******, ***** is * ******* **** *** ******* that ******** ** ***** (**** ** 4K *********) **** ******** **** ******. The **** ********** ** ***** ****** over ** ******* *** *** ******* to *** ******** **** ******* (****** upgrades *******) *** ***** ******* ****.

*******, ** ******* ********* ***** * wider ********* ** **** ******* *** features. *****, *********, *** */* *** rare ******** ** ** ****** ******, but ****** ** **. ************, ** cameras *** ** ********* ******** ** the *******, ******* ** ********* * home *** ** * ******** ***** coax *****.

*** **** ******* ** ***** ****** ** ** *****.

Common **********

*** ** *******, ***** ********** *** overwhelming ******** ** *** ******* ********, the **** *********** *** ** ** encoding ** ** *** * '****** on * ****' ********* ****** * SoC.

* *** ** * ****** **** (shown *****) ********* ** *** ****** which *********** ********* ** *** "*****", controlling ***** **********, *********** *** ********, network ******, *******, *****, *********, *** more. *** ******* *** **** **** of ***, ******* ** ** ******.

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**** *** ******* ****** ** ******* on *** ** ***** ********** *** are ******** *** ******* ******* ***** some *********** ** *** ******. ******, this *********** ********* ***** *** ******'* warranty *** ** ***** **** *** demonstration!

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**** ***** ****, ** *** ********** need ** ******* **** **** ** inside **** ******(*), *********** *** ** your **** ******. ** *********** **** process ** ******** ******* ** **** report:*** ** *** ** **** ****** Uses ****** ********* *****.

Integrated ******** (**)

**** ******* ******* *****-** ******** ************ which *** ***** ** *** ***** to ******* *** ***** ****** ******* adding ******* ***** ** *** ****.

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*** ****** ** ******** ****** *** better *******. *** ******** ** **** only ***** *** ***** ****** *** possible **** ** *** **** ************ may ***** ************. ** ******* ***** issues ** **** ****** *****.

*****

**** ******* ******* ***** **********, ***** may ** ** ******* ********* *****, including *****-** ***********, *****/****** *****, ** terminals.

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*****-** **** *** ********* ******** ** the ******** ****** ** ********* ***** as **** ** *** ******* ********** installation ** ******** ****, *** **** are ********* ***** ********** (******* *** lower ***********) **** ******** *******-***** ****.

***** ********** ****** ****** ***** ** select * *******-***** *** *********** ** the ************, **** ** ****** ********* wall *****, ******** *******, **** ***** form ******, ***.

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**** **** ***** ***** ** ********** included ** *******, ** ** ****** used. ** *** ** *** *********,******** *************** ***** ********* **** ** ***, and ***** *** ***** ***** ******** must ******** ******* ** *** *********.

** ***** ***** ****** ** **** detail ** ******** ************ *****.

Storage *******

**** ** ******* ******* ******* ******* using** *****, ******** ***** ** ** ****** locally ** *** ****** (********** *******).

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***** *** *** **** **** ** using **** *********:

  • **** ****/** ***/***:**** ******* *** ** **** ** the **** *******, **** ** ******* NVR/VMS, ********* **** ******* *******.
  • ********* *********:** ** *** ** **** *** redundancy, ********* ** *** ****** ***** the ******* ** **** *** *** recorder ****** ** *******, **** ********* when ******* ************ ** ********.

**** *****, ***** **** ******* ******* SD *******, ** ** *** ****** used. ** **** ********** **** ************ allowed *** **** * *** ****' recording, ***** **** **** ****** **** in **** ***** *** ***** ** months. ************, ***** ******** ** **** recording ******** **** *************** ******, ***** *** ** * **** of ***** ** *** **********.

*******, **** ***** ********* *** ***** edge ******* ** **** ** ***** end-to-end *****-******* *******, **** *******************. ***** ************* ***** ***** ** the ****** *** ***** ***** ** retrieve ** *** *** *****, ******* of ********* *** ***** ** ** stored ** *** *****.

*********

**** **** **** ** ****** ** cameras ******* ******* *** ***** ********* on *****, *** *** ******* ** these ********* *** ************ **** ****** weak, **** ******** ***** ****** ** shadows, ******, ***. (*** ***** ****** ********* ********).

*******, *** **** **** ** ******* built-in **** ***** ** ****** ****, with ******** *********** ** ******* **********. Additionally, **** ******** ********* **** ** facial *********** *** ******* ************** *** now ***** **** **** ****. ** expect ** *** **** ***** ******** as **** **** ******* ****** ********* and ********* ****** ********.

*** *****/***** ****** *********** **** ******* ** *** ****** of *********.

Form *******

******* *** ********* ** ******* ********* form *******, **** *****, *******, *** bullets *** ***** **** ****** *****. Box, ****, ******, *** **** ******* cameras *** **** *********, *** *** less ******.

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**** ** ***** **** ******* *** its *** **** *** ****:

  • *****: *****' **** ********** *** ******** aesthetics *** ****** ************ ** *******/****** options **** ******, *** ********* *** limited ** ****** **** ******* ******** to *****/******* *** **** ** ********* cleaned ********* ***** ******* ******.
  • *******: ******* *** **** **** ******, with *** **** ********* ** ****** IR ***** **** ***** (*********, *** always) *** **** ***** ********** *** greater **********. *******, **** *** ****** to ***** *** ** ******** *** typically *** **** ****** *****, ****** domes.
  • *******: ******* *** * ********** *** variant ** **** ***** ***** *** imager *** ** ************ **** * spherical ******. ***** ****** ********* **** the **** ********** *** ************* ** domes, *** *** ** **** ********* to ** ***** *** ****/********* **** domes *** ** *** ******* ******* area.
  • ***: *** ******* ******* ********* ** flexibility, **** *** ******* ** ****** lenses ** ***** **** **** ** very ****** *****, ******* **** **** or ****** ******. *******, **** *** more ******* ** *******, ********* * separate ********* *******, *** **** ******* disadvantages ** ******* ** ************** ** vandalism *** **********.
  • *****: ***** *** *********** **** *** cameras ******* *** ******* ** ****** lenses, *********** ***** **** *********. *******, cubes ***** *** **** *** ** lower **** ** *** *************.
  • ******/**** ******* *******: ***** **** ******* are ********* **** **** ** *** specialized ************ **** *** ******** ***, such ** ****** *** ****** ** walls/ceilings/doorframes, ** ****** ******* ***** ******. These ******** **** *****, *** ****** niche.

*** **** ******* ** ***** **** factors *** ***** ********** *** *************, see ********* **** ****** *****.

**********

*** ****** ************** ******* ******* ** resolution. * ****** ************'* ******** ********** is ***** ** *** ******** ****** of ****** ** *** ******, **** called ***** ***** (*** *** ****** resolving ***** ** *** ******). **** is **** ***** ********* ** **********, the ****** ** ******** ** ****** (e.g., * *********, ***, ***, ***.), though **** *** ******** ** *************, such ** ***** ** **.

*** **** ****** ********** ** *** today ** ***, *****, ********* ********, offers *** ******** ******* ** ***** quality, ***** *****, *** *** ***** and *** *********** (********* *****). ******* **** ********** **********:

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*** ***** ***** ********** *** **** common *********** **** ** ********** ***** surveillance *********** *****. **** **** *** is ** ****** ****** ****** ********* *******, *** ** ******** **** *** reference ** **** '******** **********' ****** to.

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Video ******* ********

***** ******* ******** **** ******** ****** at ***** ** **** ****** * mix ** ******** *** *******.

** *****, ****** *** ****** ** dim, **** ******** ********* ** *** at ***, *** ***** ********* ****** details ** ****** *** ** **** noisy ******* ** **** ****** ** processing ******** ** ******* ** *****. Finally, **** ******* *** **** ******** at *****, *** ** ************** ***** ************* ******* ********** ** ******* ** ******** ******.

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*** **** ****** ****** ** ***** issues ** ** *** ********** **. However, ***** ****** ****** **** **** IR ******* *** ***** ****** **** blurry *******. ***, **** ************ ********** subjects, ******* *** ******* ** ***** face *** *******.

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*** ***** ** *** *** **** issue ** ***** *** ***. ****** which ******* * *** ** ****** light *** ******* **** ***** ****** for **** *******, **** ******** ****** too **** ** *** ** *********** and ****** ***. ******* ********* ******* ***** (***)********** ******* ** **** *** *** exposure ****** *** ****** *****, ****** details **** ******* *******.

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Bandwidth ******

*********** *** ************ ***** ** ********** because ******* *** ******* ******* ***** easily ** **** ******* ** ** was **** ************. *********** *********** ***** that *** ******'* *** ******* ****** and ****** ** ******* ****** **** a ******* ****** ** ******** *** eliminating ********* ** ******** ****.

** ************, ******** **** ***** **** H.264 ** *.*** ****** (***********/************* *******). These ****** ******** *********, ** ******* one ***** *****, ****** ** *-*****, followed ** * ***** ** ******* pictures (*-******) **** ******* **** ***** in *** ******'* **** ***** **** changed.

** * ****** *******, * ****** waving ***** ** ******* ** *** whole ***** ** *** ******, ******** by *** ****** ***, ** *** person's **** **** *** ****.

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** ********, *********** ** *** ***** this ******, *** *******. *** **** details ** *** ****** ****, *** our************ ***** *****.

** ******** ** ***** ******** ******, manufacturers **** ********** ***** ******, * collection ** ******* ********** ***** ************* adjust *********** (******* *****), *** ***** factors ** ****** *********.

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** *** *****, ***** ****** *** reduce ******** ** ** **** ** 95%, * **** ****** ** ********* and ******* ** ****** *******. ***** codecs *** ****** ******* **** **** factors ******* *** ***** ** **** guide, *** ***** ****** ** ***** of ****. *** ******** ***** ******** **** *******.

Widely **** ****** *************

*** *** ******* ****** ************* ** the *****, ***** ** *** ****** of ***** ******** *** ********* *** Dahua. **** *** ********, ******** ** the **** ** *** ******, *** Hikvision ** **** **** ***** ** large ** *****. ****** ** *****, both ********* *** *** **** ****** used ****-*** ***** ************ ****** *********. In *** ****, ******, ***** *** Hikvision ******* *** **** ********** **** in *** *** ************* ** ******* at ************* ***** ******. *******, ***** ********************** ************* ********** ******** ********* *** Dahua ** *** ** *** ********.

*** * **** ******** **** ***-***** surveillance ****** ************* *** ***'* ******** (i.e., ***** ** ********), *****'* ***** (i.e., ***** ** ****), *** ***** Korea's ****** ******* (******** *******). ******** differentiates **** ******* ** *********, **** on ******* *** ******* ** *******, and ****** ** *****. ** *** 3, ****** ***** ******* ** ***** to ***** *** *********.

***** *** **** ** *** ****** reduced *** ****** ** ****** ************* in *** ****** (*.*.,**** ******), *****, *******, ********* (*** *-***), and * ******* ** ***** ***-***** manufacturers ******.

****** ** *****, ***** ********* *** Dahua ********, ******* (***), ***, ******, Sunell, *** * ****** ** ***** manufacturers ******** ** *******, ************ ********** from ********* ********** ** ********* *** Dahua.

*******, **** **** ******, ***** *** companies **** ****** ******* ******** ***** from ***** *************, **** ************* (*** *** *********)************ (*** *** *********).

************, ***** ************* *** ********* ***** on ************* ********* *** ***** / VSaaS.

Comments (5)

Turret is misspelled in your form factor graphic.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

Thanks, fixed. Not sure how that one slipped through.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

Thanks ! Simple, straight forward ,yet Informative and good for refreshing the basics

Agree: 1
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

I can recall the initial hype and controversies/issues when multi-imagers technology came out. Notable for me was Arecont Vision.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

Thanks, this was exceedingly well written, and clear.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny
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