Axis Cybersecurity Hardening Guide Examined

By Ethan Ace, Published Nov 19, 2015, 12:00am EST

In most IT areas, 'hardening' guides are commonplace, providing best practices for improving the cybersecurity of network products (e.g., see this Cisco hardening guide).

However, cybersecurity is generally an after thought in the physical security industry, despite an increasing number of hacking incidents.

In a rare proactive move, Axis has released a cybersecurity hardening guide, walking users through recommendations on how to close common security holes and better secure their networks.

In this note, we review this guide, provide a video showing where these settings may be found in the camera, and give our analysis of their practical impact.

Protection ******

*** **** ********* ***** defines **** ****** ** protection ******** ** ******* settings *** ********** ** security (*** **********).

***** ****** *** ***** ** recommendations **** ******* ****************** *** ******** ********, ***** ********* ******** ******** ********. **** *** *********** boiled **** ***** ****** documents **** ***** ***** ***** to ** ***** ********. 

Video ***********

*** * ****** ***** below ***** ******* *** points *** *** ******** and ****** ** ****** for **** *******:

Default, ***** *

**** ******* ***** * as "**** *********** *** demo ******** *** **** scenarios":

**** ***** ** ******* as ** ******, ***** default ****** ********. **** makes *** ****** ************ ***** the ******* ****/**** ***********, allows ********* ******* *** PTZ *******, *** ****** the ** ******* ** be ******* *** *** over *** *******, *** insecure *********. ** ** have ******* *** **********, all ** ***** *** bad ********* *** *** most ****** ****** ****** in ***** ********.

*** *** ***** ** ******* *********** ****** ********* - Axis, *****, *******, *** ******* ******** *** ** Video ************ *** **** ***********.

Standard, ***** *

***** * ** ******* as "******* *********** ***** of **********. **** ***** is ******** *** ***** business ** ****** ************* where, *********, *** ******** is **** *** *************."

**** ******** ******* ****** ***** security *********:

  • *********:**** ***** **** **** do ******** ****** *********, *** ********** "** least * **********, ********** using * ******** *********."
  • ******* ********* ******: **** ********* ****** *******, ****** with *** *** ******* of *** ****** *** access **** ***** *** PTZ ********. ** ******* *********, anonymous ****** ** ******** by *******. ***** ****** ensure ***** ******** **** not ******* ************* ** accidentally (***** **** ********).
  • *** ****/****:*** ***** ********** ******** practice ** ******** ******* the **** *** ****. Even ** *** ******** for ***** *******, ******* proper ****/**** *** *** sync, *** ***** ****** less ******, *** ************ if ********** ****** **** to *****.

**** ***** ******* ** HTTPS ** *** *** password ** ***** *, though ******** ** ** a ************** ** **** detail *****, ** ***** 2.

Enterprise, ***** *

***** * ** "*********** settings *** ************ **** have * ********* ****** administrator."

***** * ********** **** advanced ********, *** **** of ***** ******* ******* ** HTTPS *** *** *** interface/other ****, ** **** as ********* ****** ***** and ********* (***, *******, UPnP, ***.). 

*****

*** *** ************** **** makes **** ***** **** may ** ********** **** is ******** ********** (*****). By *******, ********* *** passwords *** **** ** the ****** ** ***** text ***** *** ** easily *********** *** ********* or ***** ****** ********. ******** **** option ******** ********* ******* client *** ****** ** they *** *** ** easily ********. 

** ***** ** ****** HTTPS, ***** *** ****** a ****-****** ***********, ***** is *** ******** ** any *********** ******* ********* and ********* *** ******** as ***** ******, ** create * ******* ** send ** * *********** authority ** ****** * signed ***********.

*********** ***** ****** ********* ** the ******, ********, *** additional ********/******** ********, ****** ********* costs * *** ******* per ***********. **** ******* offer ********* ***** *** several ******* ******* *** year, ***** *** ** used ** ***** ***** deployments ******* ** ****** per ******.

**** **** **** ** clear ** ***** *** that ***/**** ***** *** not ********* ** *******, and ***** ******** ***** only ** **** ******* clients *** *** ******.***** ********* ****** ** ******* **** *** VMS, ***** ** *** universal. ***** *** ******** do *** ******* ***** via *****, *** *******, while ********* *** ******* do.

***** ***************

**** *********** **** *** three practices *** ***** *********** in ** ***** ********:

  • ****** ***** *******:**** ********** ******** * backup ***** ******* **** a ********* ******** **** the ******* *******, ** users *** ***** *** in ****** ****** ******* ****** compromised. **** ** ****** in ** *******, *** rarely **** ** ******** security. **** ***** **** use *** ******* ***** account ** *******.
  • ******/*** *******:************, **** ********* ******** a **** ** *** camera *** *** ***/*** users, ******** **** *** admin *******(*). **** ******* the ******** ** *** admin *******. *******, **** VMSes *** ******* ************** privileges *** ****** ********* (though * ******** ***** account *** *** ********** is ***** **** ********).
  • ** ******* *********:*******, **** ********** ******** only *** ******* *** admin ******* ** ****** cameras ********, *** ** address *********. **** ** a ******, *** ***** overlooked ***** ** ******** access ** *******, ***** any ******* **** **** be **** **** *** authorized ********. **** ***** that * ********** *** use **** ***** *********** machines ** ****** ********, which **** *** **** annoying.

Managed **********, ***** *

*******, ***** * ** ********* as "***** ******* ************** with ** **/** **********. For ************ ***** ******* may **** ** ** integrated **** ** ********** network **************."

***.**

** **** *****, **** recommends ***** ***.**, ***** ******** devices ** ** ************* by * ****** ****** being ******* ** ******* to *** *******. ******* ******* credentials ****** ** *** work. 802.1x ** ********* ********** on *** ******* ******.

***.** ** ********* *********** by ***** ********** ********, as ** **** *********** complexity *** ************** ** the *******. ** ** very ******, *** ****** the ************ ** **** users, *** ****** ******** for **** ************ *************.

**** **********

**** ********** ***** **** monitoring ** *** *******. ******* Axis ******* ***** ******* security ******** *****, ********* "Authentication ******" ************, ** notify ************** ** ****** logins, ** **** ** general ****** ********* ******.

** **** ***.**, **** is ********* **** ** only **** ************* ** organizations, ** ** ******** more ******* ***** *** knowledge. *******, **** **** or *** **** ******* monitoring ********* ******** **** common, ***** ********** *** be ********* ** **** small ******** ** ******* some ********** ******* *** available ** *** ****** or **** *** ***.

*** *** ******* ********** / **** for ***** ************ ***** *** **** *********** *** tutorials, ********* *********** ** Axis' ******** **** **************.

****** ****** ***

****** ******* ******* * central ******** *** ******** devices ** **** *** files **. ******* ** SNMP **********, *** ********* by **** ** *** same ******* ********** *****, syslog ***** *** ****** in **** **** ** the ******, ***** **** checks ****** *** *** notify ************** ** ******. Some ** ***** ****** may ** ********* ** SNMP ** ******* ** use, ****** ****** **** common, ********** ** ************.

Overall ****** ***************

*** **** ********* *****, in ******** ** **** specific ***********, ******** ******* practical *************** *** ********* security ** ** ***** networks. ***** **** *****, which ******** ********** ************* time *** **** *** the ****** *** ***********, the *************** ** ****** 1 *** * ****** take **** * *** minutes ** *********, **** if *********** ******* ** bulk. 

**** ******* *** ***** cost *** ********** ** HTTPS, ***** ** ****** many ***** **** *** implement, ***** ***** *************** do **** ** ******* ****** attack ****** ** ******** networks.

Other ************* *** *********

** *** *** ***** of *** ***** ** camera ************* **** ********* guides. ***** *********'* ***** record, ** ********** ******* with **** **** **** a **** *** *** have *** ******** * response *** ******* **** do *** **** ***.

Comments (12)

In current firmwares, anonymous access is disabled by default.

I'm not sure what Axis define as anonymous access, but I as far as I can tell ONVIF access with full rights are enabled by default with no user name or password needed, not even root pass.

Do Axis Cameras Default To No Password Required?

It is indeed available by default, but it's disabled as soon as you assign a root password.

Anonymous access refers to viewing/PTZ control via the web interface without login.

It is indeed available by default, but it's disabled as soon as you assign a root password.

Which you need never do, if using a VMS.

Sure, that's true, but it's unlikely.

First off, most VMSes include direct Axis drivers and cameras are discovered as such. The vast majority of people spending money on Axis instead of cheaper alternatives are going to know this and use the right driver, which requires creating the password.

Second, if you never enter the web interface, you likely will not be able to configure several things. Basic things like detailed CODEC settings may not be exposed, the date and time are rarely set via VMS, text overlays/titles, autofocus, etc., etc. As well as advanced features which people tend to buy Axis for, like Zipstream, ACAP applications, all that. You can't update firmware without setting the password, either, since it's done via the web or Axis Camera Management client.

The vast majority of people spending money on Axis instead of cheaper alternatives are going to know this and use the right driver, which requires creating the password.

Are you sure that adding a defaulted Axis camera w/Axis driver requires creating a new root password?

What happens when you try to add thru the VMS before you have created it? Does it just fail?

Maybe it has changed again, but when I looked at it a few months ago it seemed to match what the guide said:

The first time a user access the device using the web interface a password for the default root as is illustrated...

Once the root user has a password the device only accepts access according to the access permissions...

However, if the device is first accessed using the VAPIX API (i.e. not the GUI) there is no hard requirement from the device to enter users with proper credentials. Instead, as this is the normal way a camera is plugged into a VMS, the client application is trusted to add proper users to the device to control the access as described above. - Axis Authentication Guide

I tried it earlier with Exacq, and yes, failed. Firmware 5.80.1.2

Here's exactly what I am talking about, shown in this video.

  • 0:00 - Live View - Feedback FOV
  • 0:05 - Latest Firmware shown - 5.7.2
  • 0:13 - Reset All Parameters to Factory Default
  • 0:17 - 01:41 Nothing - (My submission for Bootup shootout)
  • 1:42 - Begin attempt home page retrieval
  • 2:23 - Home page retrieved - requests creation of root password
  • 2:24 - Request Ignored
  • 2:25 - VLC open network stream rtsp://root:pass@192.168.200.10:554/axis-media/media.amp
  • 2:35 Stream opened with default root:pass credential

Maybe 5.8.x is key?

I tried mine with Exacq as well and it also failed with a Camera Connect error 10061.

VLC, on the other hand, still continues to work with root:pass (and only root:pass).

Actually, Exacq wasn't a total failure, even though there is no video (thru Exacq), it lets me add the camera and then lets me see random things like the resolution and the frame rate. Wireshark shows it failing on some VAPIX commands and succeding on others.

So anonymous viewing by default, at least.

Not sure what other VMSes would do, but it doesn't seem likely that this is Axis' intended behavior, would you agree?

Isn't there issues with turning on HTTPS and connecting the camera to a VMS?

Good question, and yes. If the VMS doesn't support login via HTTPS, it will fail to connect. I just forced an Axis Q camera to HTTPS for login and Exacq fails to connect.

Excellent article. We primarily use Axis cameras in our environment so this is very useful information.

Update: Bosch now has a 'data security' / hardening guide out.

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