How Millimeter Wave Airport Body Scanners Work

By Nikita Ermolaev, Published Jan 04, 2022, 10:03am EST (Info+)

Millimeter wave body scanners have become common in the US and some European countries, replacing conventional metal detectors and X-ray security systems. But how do the Millimeter Wave Body Scanners work and what tradeoffs do they have?

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Inside this guide, we explain why MW body scanners were developed, the science behind the technology and construction of modern body scanners, examining:

  • Versus metal detectors and X-Ray machines
  • History
  • Working principle
  • The science behind them
  • Millimeter waves explained
  • Types of these scanners
  • Construction
  • Antennas
  • Image Reconstruction
  • Standing Still and Resolution
  • Image Analysis
  • Final Image Rendering
  • Operator Must Verify
  • Pros/Cons of MW Body Scanners
  • Manufacturers of MW Body Scanners

Versus ***** ********* *** *-***

**** ************ **** ******* ***** ********* and ************** *-*** ******** **** ***** limitations. ***** ** ************ ***** *-*** ********' ******* ******* on *** ***** ****. ***** ********* *** ***** ** nuisance ****** ** ********* ***** *** are ****** ** ****** ***-***** ****** objects. ** **** ******** **** ********* to ******* *** *********** ** ***** technologies.

History ** ** **** ********

** **** ******** **** ********* ******** by***** *. *. ********** ***** ** ****. * *********** improvement ** *** ***** ** ** body ******* *** ***** **** ** the ********** *********** ********* ******** **********. ***** ***** ************* *** ** improved *****-*********** ***** ************** *********, ******** swept-frequency ***********, *********** ******* ******, ***.

*** ***** ******* ***** **** **** ******** *** ** **** at *** ********* ******** *******. * *** ***** ** *** use ** ** **** ******** ******** after** ********* ******* ** * ***** flying **** ******** ******* ** *******, Michigan ** ****. * ********* *** ******** ** explosive ** *** ***** *** *** go ******* * **** ******* ***** the ******** ********** ***** ******* ***** body ******** ** ****.

Body ******* ** ******

***** ** * ***** **** ***** the ****** ** *** **** ******** in **** ** * ** *******:

Working *********

********** **** **** ******** **** ********* frequency *****, ****** *** ********* ***** from * ******’* **** *** **** for ******* *********** **** ******* ***** a ******’* ********. **** ** ******** because ********** ***** **** ******* ******** but *** ********* *** ******** ** concealed ******* ** **** ** *** body. ****, ********** ***** *** ***-******** radiation, *********, ****** *-****, *** ******** to *** ***** ****.

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The ******* ****** *** ** **** ********

**** *************** ***** *** ******** **** an ****** *** ***** *** ****** be (*) *********, (*) ********, ** (3) *********** ******* *** ******.

*** ***** **** * ********** **** body ******* ******** ** * ******** of *** ************ ** ******* **** are *******. *** *******, *** ************ of * ********, **** ******, **********, guns, ***. ****.

**** ****** ** ************* ** * reflectivity ******** ***** ** * ***** of ********** ** *** ********* **** and *********** ****. ** ******* ** the ********** ** *******, **** ** size, ****, ************, ************, *** ******** factors **** ** ********* *** ************ of *** ******** *************** *****.

****** ******** **** ** * **** thin ***** ** ********** ********.******** *********** ******** **** ******** *** *** *********** losses ** *************** *****. ***** *** factors (******** ** ****** ******** *** low ******) ******** **** ******** ***** provide ****** ** *** *** ** electromagnetic *****, ****** **** ********* *********** to *** **** *******.

**** *************** ***** *** ******** **** concealed ******* *** * ***** **** reflected *************** ***** *** ********. *** detected ********* ***** ****** ** *** shape, ******* *******, *** *********** ** on ******. ********* *********** **** *** objects ****** ****** ******** ** *** image ** ****** **** ** * person’s ****.

Millimeter *****

********** ***** **** **** ******* *** Far ******** **** *** *****-**** ********* Band, ** *** ***** ***** *****:

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********** ***** *** *************** ***** **** have * ********** ** *** ***** of *********** (*-****) *** *********** ** the ***** ** **-******, ***** *** frequencies **** ** **** (*.*., *.* GHz *** *.* ***).

********** ***** **** ******** ************, ********* but *** ******* **: ****************** (*.*.****************, ***. **** ** *** ******), body ********, ***** *********, **** ****** testing.

Types ** ** **** ********

*********** *** ****** *** *** *** most ****** ***** ** ***** ********, differing ** *** **** ** **** of *** ******’* ****. *********** **** Scanner ***** ** ****** **** * circular **** ** ****** * ***-****** cylindrical ****, ******* ****** **** ******** scan *** ****** **** * ****** point ** ****. *********, *** ******** of *** ******* ***** ** **** different: ** ** ***** **** * circular ****, ** ************ ** ********** depending ** *** ******* ***** *********** respectively.

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*********** **** ******** **** ********** ** an *********** ** ****** ****. ******* of ******* ** ***** ** *** sides (**** *** ***** ****), *** Cylindrical **** ******* *** **** ** to ** ****** **** ********* ****** during * ****** ****. **** ***** to **** **** ******** **** ** planar **** ******** *** ****** *** greater ****** ** * **** ****.

Construction ** ** **** *******

*** ***** ***** ***** * ********* diagram ** * *********** ** **** Scanner.

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Antennas ** *** ** **** *******

**** ** **** ******** **** *** antenna ****** **** *** ***** ** the ***** ****** *** ****. ********* on *** **** ** ********, ****** move ***** ******** ***** ** ** horizontal/vertical **********. *** ***** ***** ***** the ******* ****** (***** *******) ****** in ******** *****.

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*** ******* ***** ******** ** *** columns (** **** ********* ** *** stand's ***********) ** ******* ******** ** the ***** ***** *****. *** ****** is * ************ ****** *** *** other *** ** * ********* ******. Below ** *** ***** ** ****-**** implementation ** *** ********** ******* ***** in*** ******* ********* ** *******.

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********* ******** ******** *** ** **** including ******* ********. * ********* ******* of * ******* ******* ** ***** below. *** ****** ** *** ******* can **** *** ** ********** ** selected **** *** ********* ** ***** skilled ** *** ***.

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** *** ***** ****** *** ****, only * ****** ************ ******* ** a ***** ** ********** *** ****** and *** ** **** ********* ******** are ********* *** ********* ******. *** successive ********** ** * ****** ******* can ** **** **** *** **** of * ********* **** **** ** built ** *** *********** *******. *** activation ** * ****** ************ ******* is ****** ** ***** ************ *** coupling ******* *** ******** ********.

Image **************

*** **** ******** **** *** ******* array *** **** ** ************** ************* to **** * ** ***** ** a ******’* ************ ********. *** ********* image ** * ******** ******* ** target ************ **** ********* ************ ****** determined ** ******** ***** *** *********.

*** ************** ********* ** * *********** of * *********** (********-****) ***** ************** algorithm *** * *** (********* ******** Radar) ***** ************** ********* ********* *******. *** *** ***** ***** ***** SAR.

** *** * ****** ************* ** how ********-**** ***** ************** ********* ** used ** *** **** ******** ** suggest ******* *********** ***** ** ***** *. ***** et **.

Standing ***** *** **********

*** **** ******* ********** ** ***** resolution ** **** *** ****** ** standing ***** ****** *** ****, ** particular ****** *** ******** ** *** antenna *****. *********, *********** ****** *** be ********** *** ** *** ************ of *** ****. ** * *********** body ******* *** ******* * ***** image ** ******** ** ********* *********** arc ******** ** ***** ******* *****. The *********** ** *** *********** ***** of *** ******** *** ******* ******* analysis.

* **** ********* ********* ******* ** difficulties ******* ** *** ******** ****** Body ******* ** * ******* ***** of * ****** ****** ******** ** the ****** **** **** ******* *****.

Image **********

*** ********** ** *** ***** ** a ***********-******* ********** ****** ** *** wavelengths, *********, ******** ** *** ****, etc.

***** *** ******** **** ** ******** the ******* ** ** *****, ********* putting ******** *** ********* ******* ****** together, ********** *** ****** ** ******* elements, ***** *****-********* ******* * ***** signal *** *******, ***. ***** ******** frequencies ******* ******** ************ ** *** reflectivity ******** ** *** ****** *** each ********* *** ******* ********* *** the *********** ** *** ****** ******. Placing *********** *** ******** ** ***** as ******** ******* **** *** ********* image ** ** ***** ** *** real ** ********.

*** ***** ********* *** ******** ** the ****** *** *** ** ******** about *********** ** *** *******, **** as ******** **** ***********, ******** ******* antenna ********, ***.

Image ********

***** ******** *** ****** ********* ** made **** *** **** ** * neural *******. ******* ** ****************** ****** “********* ** * ********* object”***** ****

********, ***-**** ******* ** *** **** used ** * ****** ** ********** often **** **** ******** *** ***** edges **** *** ** ************* **** the ****************,****** ******** ** * ***** subject ***** ** ********* *** ***** mapping…

*** ** *** *************** ********* ** the ****** *** * ****** ******* with *** ******* ** *** ***** hidden *****, ** ******* ** *** second ****** *****, *** *** *******. These ******* *** (*) * ***-**** object *** (*) *** * ***-**** object. *** ****** ** ******* *** vary ** ********* *******.

** ****** * ********* ****** ****** network **** ***** *** ********* ***********. Depth *********** *** ** ******** **** the ******** ********** ** *** ******** and ********* *** *************** *****. ****** transferring *** ***** *** ** *** neural *******, * ********** ******** ** applied. ***** ********** ********* ** ******** to ** ****** ********** ** ******** differencing ********** ******* ** * ***** map.

**** * *********** ** *** **** is *********, ** ** *********** ** the ****** ******* ***** *** ******** is *********.

Final ***** *********

********** ***** *** ******* ** ********* a **** ******** ******* ** ** individual **** ** ** ***** *******. This ****** * ****** ** ******* concerns (*,*,*,*). ** ******* **** ********* * new ********* ****** ********* ****** *********** (ATR) *** *********. **** ********* ********** a ******’* ****** *** ********** ** with * ******* **** ****** ** an ********** **** * *** ** top ** ** ***** ** ****** has **** ********.

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Operator **** ******

*** ** **** ******* **** *** determine ******* ** ****** ** * weapon *** ** *** **** *** presence *** *********** ** ***-**** ******* (e.g., ** ****** ** * ******'* left **** ***). **** *********** *** then ** **** *** * ******** operator ** ***** *** ******, ************ in *** ********(*) **** *** ****** has ********** **** ** ******.

Pros ** ***** ** **** ********

**** ******** ****** **** ******** *** non-metallic *******

****** ***** *********, ** **** ******** don’t **** ** *** ******** ************ or ********** ** ******* (*** ******* to ******** * ********* ******** ***** in *** **** ** ***** *********) and *** ******* ** ********* **** metallic *** ***-******** *******.

**** ******** *** ********

****** *-*** *******, ** **** ******** use ***-******** ********* *** ********* **** no ****** ** * ***** *****. There *** ******** ******* ******* **** MW **** ******** ** *** **** adverse ******* ** *** ***** **** (*,*).

Cons ** ***** ** **** *******

** ******/***-****** **************

** **** ******** *** ****** **** the ******** ** ********** ********** **** a ******’* ****. **** ** *** have *** ********** ** ******* ********* the ********** ** **** * ******/***-****** decision.

********, ***** **** **** ******** ******* that ** **** ******** **** ***** alarms ** ****** **** ** ***** in *** ********, ***** ************, ***. (*,*,*)

** **** ******** ******

** *** **** ***** ** **** et **. ******* *********** ** ********** ***** **** human **** ** ** *** ***** of ***********. *********, *** *************** ***** *** simply ****** ** ***** *** **** cavities. **** ***** ** * *********** drawback ** *** ******** ** *** body ******** *** ********* **** *** smuggling ********* ** *******. *-*** ************** systems *** ****** **** ******* ****** the **** ********, *** **** **** been ******* ******** **** ***** ******** systems **** ***’* **** ****** *****.

*** **********

***** ******** *** ********* **** **** a *** ****** *** ****** (*.*., 10 - ** ******* *** ******), far ****** **** ************ ***** *********. While *** **** ***** **** * - * *******, ** ***** **** to *** **** ******* ****** *** device, ** ******** ******* **** ** be ******* **** *** *******, *** to **** *** ******.

**** ****

** **** ******** *** **** **** 10x ** ********* ** ***** *********. For *******, * ****** **** ****** has ** **** ** ~$***,*** ******* **** *** *****(** ***** *** **** **** ****** pricing). ** ********, **** ********** ********* walk-through ***** ********* *** ********* ** the $*,*** ***** (*.*.,**** ***** ******** *****).

Manufacturers

***** *** **** *** ********* **** sell ** **** ********:

  • ******: ** ********** ********* ******** *** $* *******. ******** *** *** ** *** most ****** **** ** **** ********. Leidos *** **** *********** ** **** scanners:********* *,********, ***.
  • *******: * ******* ******* **** *********** **** ******* ********
  • ***** & *******: ** **** ***** & ******* introduced ***** ****** ** **** ******* called*&* ***. ** ** *** * ************ planar **** ******* ** ***** & Schwarz ******* * ******* ********* **** doesn't ******* *** ******** **** *** antennas.
  • ****** *********: **** ******* ******* ***** * product *********. ****************, **** ****** ******** * person ** ****** ***** **** *** degrees. ****, *** ******** *** *********: one ******** *** ***** * ****** to ********* ***** ** *** ******* and *** ***** ******** *** ***** at *** **** **** ** *** remote ******** *** ************ *** ******* to *** ***** ********. ***** ********* is ***** *** ********* ** **** a *** ** ******* ******* ******** with ******** ****** ** *** ******* person.**** *******-**** ************** *** *** ***** ** ******* detail, ******* ***** ***** * ****** rotating:

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Comments (6)

**** ************ *** * ****? **** / ****?

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*** ********** **** ******* ** **** used **** *********** ***** ******** ********.

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*****, ******!

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**** ** ******'*'****** *******

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******, *****, ***** ** *********!

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** *******. * *** **** *** article ***** *********** *** ***********. * remember * *** ** ******** *********** at *** **** **** ***** **** first ***** ******** **** ** ******.

** ****, **** **** *** **** being **** *** * **** **** at ******** ******* *******

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