H.265 / HEVC Codec Tutorial

Author: IPVM Team, Published on Jan 08, 2019

H.265 support improved significantly in 2018, with H.265 camera/VMS compatibility increased compared to only a year ago, and most manufacturers shipping H.265 models.

However, there are still challenges impacting H.265's competitiveness and compatibility, keeping it from replacing H.264 in the mainstream.

In this report, we review all these issues, including:

  • H.264 vs H.265 Technical Comparisons
  • Impacts On Quality
  • Barriers in Moving to H.265
  • Camera/VMS Compatibility Improvements
  • VMS Support Reviewed
  • ONVIF Conformance Delays
  • H.265 vs Smart H.264
  • H.265 Smart Codecs
  • H.265 IPVM Test Results
  • H.265 CPU Load Impact
  • Patent Licensing Issues
  • Usage Recommendations

Overall, the key marketing claims for HEVC/H.265 is reducing bit rate requirements in half to deliver the same quality. For instance, if a 1080p / 30fps H.264 camera required 4Mb/s, the equivalent H.265 camera would be expected to require only 2Mb/s. But that is now, clearly not enough, as we will explain inside.

*.*** ******* ******** ************* ** ****, **** *.*** ******/*** ************* increased ******** ** **** * **** ***, *** **** ************* shipping *.*** ******.

*******, ***** *** ***** ********** ********* *.***'* *************** *** *************, keeping ** **** ********* *.*** ** *** **********.

** **** ******, ** ****** *** ***** ******, *********:

  • *.*** ** *.*** ********* ***********
  • ******* ** *******
  • ******** ** ****** ** *.***
  • ******/*** ************* ************
  • *** ******* ********
  • ***** *********** ******
  • *.*** ** ***** *.***
  • *.*** ***** ******
  • *.*** **** **** *******
  • *.*** *** **** ******
  • ****** ********* ******
  • ***** ***************

*******, *** *** ********* ****** *** ****/*.*** ** ******** *** rate ************ ** **** ** ******* *** **** *******. *** instance, ** * ***** / ***** *.*** ****** ******** ***/*, the ********** *.*** ****** ***** ** ******** ** ******* **** 2Mb/s. *** **** ** ***, ******* *** ******, ** ** will ******* ******.

[***************]

*** **********, *** ************* **** ****/*.*** **********. *** *** **** *******, *** ********** **** ***** ******** ********(***+ *****).

Technical **********

***** **** ********** ************ ***** *.***'* ********* *********** *****:

  • **** ****** **** ******* ** ***********: ***** *.***'* ******* ***** size ** *** ****** (** ***), *.***'* **** ** *** greater ** **** (** * **). ********** *** *** ****** size ******* **** ********* ********, ********** *** ****** ********** ******. Read * **** ********* **** **** ***** *******. *** ***** ***** ***** ****:

  • ******** ******** ** *.*** **** ***** ********* ***** ** *** image ** ** ********* **************. **** *** ***** ** ******** and **** ********* ** *** ************ ****** *****-**** **** *********. H.264 *** *** ******* ****.
  • "***** ****** ******" ****** *** **** ***** ** *.*** **** "decodes ******** ******* ******* ** ****** *** ******** **** ******** earlier ** *** *********, ********** ** ********* ******** ****** ***** known ** '**** ***' *********" (******* * ** **** ********). **** ***** ** * ********* ******* *** ************ ** the **** ** ******** ******** ***** *** ****** ******** * frames **** *** ******** ******** *** ****.

*** ***** ******* **** *.*** *****, **** **** *.***, ** scalable ********. ***** ** ****** ** ******* (**** ** *.***), H.265 ** ******** ** ***** ******** ***** ** ************. *** benefits ******* ********* ** *** ********* ******* *** ****** ******* pruning.

Potential ************ ** *******

* ****** ** ************* **** ************ ** ***** ******* **** H.265, ****** **** ** **********. *.*** ** *** ********** ****** 'quality' **** *.*** *** *** *.*** ****** '*******' **** ****-*. As ****, ** *** *** ***** *********** ********* *** *.*** for ******* *****, ****** ** *.*** ** ******** ** ******* image *******. *******, ** *** ****** *** ****. *** **** case ***** ** ***** ********** ************** ** ** ********* ****** **** *.*** **** *** ** low ** ** ******** ******* *********. ****, * ****** ** H.265 ** *** **** ********* ***** ***** ******* *******.

Barriers ** ****** ** *.***

****** ** *.*** *** *** **** ****** ** **** *** surveillance *** ** ***** *** ********:

  • *** *******: ******** ******* ****** ****** ** ******** ** *.*** *** firmware, ** *** ******** *** ********* ********, ******* **** ******* must ** ******** **** ** *** ******** **** ****** **** MPEG-4 ** *.***.
  • *** *** ********: ***** *.*** ** * ***(**) ********, *** ******* **** to *** *******. ***** ** ******** * **** ****** ** work *** *******. ** **** ****** *** ****** ***** ***** see ******* ****** ********** (*** *** ******* *****).
  • ********* ********** *****: *** ******** ** ********* ********* ** ****** ********** ***** requirements **** *********** ** ******** **** **% ** ***% ********. On *** ***** ****, ********* ********* ************ ***** ******** **** surveillance ***** ** ** ******* */* ******** ****. **********, **** should ** ** *** ***** **** ** ************** ******** *** delays ** **** *** ******** *** ******.

Camera ******* **********

********** ****, *.*** ******* ** ** ******* *** **** ********** significantly, **** ***** ****** **** ** **************,******,*********,*******, ****************** *.*** ** **** ******, ***** ****** **** ** ****, Bosch, **************** ******* *.*** ******, **** **** *** ******** ********* *** codec. *******, ********** **** ** *******, ********, *** ***** **** all ********* ***/** ******** *.*** ******.

VMS/Camera ************* ********

*.*** ***/****** ************* *** ******** *************, **** **** ****** ************* (Axis, *****, ******, *********, *********, *******, ***.) ****** ** ****** VMSes **** *.*** ******* (*****, *******, *********, *********) **** ** configuration ******** ***** **** ********* *.*** ******* ** *.*** ** streaming *****.

**** * **** ******* (~*** ****), **** *** *** *** case, **** **** ***** ********** **** ******* ****** ** ********* additional *** ** ***** ** ****** ************* ** *** ****** using *** *** ********* ** *** *.*** *******.

***** ************ ** *********** *** **** ** *** *** ****** to ******** ** ***** *.*** ******** *******.

VMS ******* **********

** *** *** ****, **** ********** *** ******* ******* *** at ***** **** *.*** *******, **** ****** ****** ******* *** most ** *** ****** ****** ********* *****. ** ** ***** 2019:

  • ******** ******* ******: ******** ******* ****, **** ****** ** ****** ** ****.
  • ***** ****: *****, ******, *********, *********, *******, ******* **** (*** **** small ****)
  • ***********: ****, *****, ******, *********, ********, **********, *******, *** ******* RTSP
  • ******* ******** ******: ****, *****, *****, ****, ******, *********, ***, *******
  • ********* ********: *******, ****, *****, *****, *-****, ******, *********, ********, **********, Milesight, *********, ***, *******, ******* (*** ****)
  • ******* ***** *********: *****, *********, ******, *********, *****, *********, *********, ***, *******, Vivotek (*** ****)
  • ***** *******: *****, ******, *********/***, *********/*******, *******

H.265 ***** *********** *** ********, ******* * ********

*** ** *** ***** ******* * ** **********, * *** profile *** ******** ** ******* *.***, ***** ******* *, ******** in ** ****. ***** ** **** *******, ***** ***** *** guarantee ***** ************* **** ***** *.***, **** ** **** *** camera *** *** **** ******* * **********. *** *** ********* *** **** ***** **** ******* *.****** **** *******.

******* ******/*** ********* **** ******** ******* *** *.*** *** ***** (but ******* *********** **********). *** *******, ********* ******** ***** ******* for *.*** ***** ******* ** ***** ********* ****** ****, ** do ***** *** ******* *****.

*******, **** *** ******* ** ******* *, *.*** ** *** supported ** * *****-**-*** ***** ****** ** ********** *******, ******* that ******* **** ******* ** *** *** ** *** *** if *********, *** ***** **** ** **** ** ******** ****** and ******* **** ******. **** **** ****** ** *****, ******* T *.*** ******************** *********** ** ******* * *.** *******. *** ******** ******* * *********** **** *******.

Smart *.*** ** *.***

*.*** ** *** *** **** ********* ******** ********** ***** ******* for ***** ************ *******. ******, ** *** **** *** *****,***** ********** **** **********, ********** *********** ********* ********** ******** ** ******** H.264, *** ******** *** ********** ** **** ** *.***.

*.*** ***** ****** **** * *** ******** **. *.***:

  • ********* **********/***** **** *.***, *********** *** **** *** *** *** support *** *** **** *********
  • ******* * ***** ******** **** ***** *.*** *** ************* ****** bandwidth ***********, * ******* **** "*******" *.*** *****.

** ********** ** **** ***** ***** *********, *** ********* ******* ***** **** *** ******* **** **** the ********** ********* ****** ** '***-*****' *.***.

H.265 ********* **** ***** ******

**** ***** ****, "*******" *.*** ******* *** ************ ****, **** manufacturers ******* ************ *.*** ***** **** ***** ******, **** *********** *.***+,****** *.*** **** **********,******* *.***/***** ****** **, ***. **** *********** ****** ****** ************, *** ** ******* as ********** **** *.*** ***** ****** ** ** ***. *******, for ******** ****** ********, **** ** ****** ** ** *** combination **** ****** *******, ********** ** *.***'* ******* ********** *****.

H.265 **** *******

** ***** *****, *.*** ******* *** *** ******* ******** ********* improvements/savings **** ******* *.*** ******* (****.*** ** ******* ** *.*** **** *******), **** *.*** ***** ****** ********* ****** ******* **** "*******" H.265.

*******, ** **** ****** *****, **** ********'* ******* * *******(*********** ******'* ****** ********** ** *.*** *******), ***** *.*** ******** were ******* ***** **** ***** *.***, **** ** *** **** camera *** ****** ***********.

bandwidth comparison

*.*** *** ******* ** ** ******* *** ********** *********** ** chips ****** *********, ******* ** *.*** ************ **** ****.

CPU **** ******

** *** *****, ******* *.*** *** ******* **** ********* *********, commonly ********* ****** *** *** **** ** *.*** *******. ******* of ****, ***** ****** ************* ** ******** ****** **** ** ****** ********, ***** ***** the **** ********* ** ******* ******* ***** *.*** *** ** insufficient.

*** *******, **** ************ *.***+ **** ******, *.*** ******* **** **** **** ****** *** *** **** of *.***, **** *** *** *****.

cpu load comparison

*********** **** *****, ***** ********/*** ******** *** ****** **** ****** in *** **** ******* *****, **** **** ** *** ******* H.265 ******** ********. ******* ** ****, ***** **** *** ** reduced **** ********** ** *** *** **** ***** *.***, ***** settings **** ** ****** ** *.*** ****, ***** *****:

hardware acceleration impact

H.265 ****** ********* ******

*.*** *** ********** * *** ************ *** *************: ****** *********. Unlike *.***, ***** *** **** * ****** ****** ****** (******), H.265 ** ******* ** *,***+ ******* **** ** ******** ****** (MPEGLA, **** *******, *****, *** ****). ******* ** ****, ***** is ********* ***** ************* ***** ***** ***** ** ******* **** should ******* *** ***** ********.

** * ******, * ****** ** ****** *************/*** ********** **** not ******** ***** ******** ** *** (*****). ***** ****** *** covered ** **** ****** ** **************** ******** ********** *.*** ******** ******.

Usage ***************

***** ** *** *** ***** *******, ** *********:

  • ******** *.*** **** ***** ******, ***** *.*** ******* ***** ******, since ******* ***** ******, *.*** ******** **** ********* **** ***** H.264. ****, *.*** *** ******* ****** ** ***** *** ******* and ****** ******* *** **** *** ******* ** *.***.
  • ****** **** ***** *.*** ******* *** ******** **** **** **** your *** / *** ** ******. ****** ********, **** ************ will ***** *** **** ***** *** ***** ****** * ***** problem.
  • ****** **** *** **** ********** ********** ***** **** ** *** recording ****** (** *.*., *** ******** ** ***** ****** ***** motion ********* ** ***** *******) *** ** *** ****** **** to ****** **** *** ****** *** ********** ********* ** ****** and ******* *.*** ******* ****** ****** ** ***** *******.

****: **** ******** *** ********** ******* ** **** *** ******* in ****, ****, **** ** ******* ********/******* ** *.*** ******* and ***********.

Comments (20)

****,

*** ***** **** ******* ** ***** ******, **** *** **** useful ** ****** ***** ***** ** **** ****** ****** *******. Any ****** ** *** ***** **** **** * ******* ******.

* ******* * **** ***** *** **** * **** ***** or * ********* ** ******* ****** ******* ******* **% *** 75%.... *** ******* *** **** ***** ***** ** * ******* H265.

*** ****, **'** ** ***** **** ******* ** **** ****** up, *** ** * ****** ******* **** ******* **** *** the********* *.***+ ****, ******* *.*** *** ****** **** ***** ***** *.***+ ** far ** *** ****** ****** ***** ****** (* ******* ******** fenceline ** * ***** ***, ***** **-**% ** *** ***** was ******).

** *** ** *****, *.***+ *** ~* **/*, *.*** *** over *.

** *****, *.***+ *** ~*** **/*, *.*** *** ~* **/*.

**'** ** ***** **** **** ****, *** **** **** *'** seen, *'* ***** ** *** **** ***** ***** *.*** ** likely ** ** ***** ******* **** *.*** ** *** **** majority ** ****** (*** ** ******* ***** *** **** ** decode).

****, **'* ******* ** ** * **** *****, ***** **** manufacturers ****** ** *.*** *** ******** ***** ****** **** **, anyway (*****,******,*********,*********,*******, ***.).

**** **** **** ****, ***** ***. * **** *** *** wishes ***** *** ****** ******** ** *.***:

*) **** *** ************* **** ** *** "********" *** **** putting ***** *** ****** ****** ** ***** ************** **** ***** their ********* **** ***** ******* ******** **** ******** ****. * know **** ** * ***** **** *****, **** **** ** do ********** **** *** ** ********* ****** ** *** ***** equipment ***-**-*** *** *** ***** ****** ********.

*) ******** ** *.*** **** *****. **** *** ** ** done! ****** ***** ***** **, **'** **** ** *** ******* now **** ** ******** ******** ***** ** ***** *** *** of **** ****** *** ***** ****. **** *** ******** ******* supporting ***** ****-***, *** **** ******** **** ******** ************ **** I ******** *** "** ****, *** ******** ********". ***** ** is ******** ** *** **** ****** *********** *** ** *** Edge *******, *** **** ****** **** **** ** ******** *** now *** ***** ******** ********'* **** ****** ** ** **** outdated ******** **** ***** ***** ****-*** ** **** **** ******* plug-ins **** ** ***** *** ** * ******* **** *** to *** **********. * ******** *** ***** ****** *** *** life ** ** ********** *** **** **** *******. ******* ***** to **** ************ *** **** *** ***** ******* *** ******* about "**'** ******* ** **" ******* "**'** ******* *** *** person ** ******* ** ** ** *** *** '*****' **". It ****** ** **** ******** ********* ******* *** ****** ************.

*** ****** *** ****** *****. *** ** *** ******* ****** for ****** ******* ******** ****** ******* *** ** ******* ****. It's *** **** **** ********* ** ** * ****** *** offers *** ** *** **** ******.*****://**.*********.***/****/***

**** ****** ***** ****!!! * **** ******* * *** ************* to *** ** **** **** **** ***** ** ** ***.

* ******* **** ************* **** **** ** ****** ** *** for *.*** / **** ******** ** ****** ***** ******** **********, betting **** **** ***** **** *** ****.

*** **** ****** *** ********* ***** **** *** ******* ** answer **** *** ************* ***** ******** ** * "******" *** browser. ** **** ***** ** ** ***** **** **** ** will ***** **** ********** ************* ******** ** *.*** **** ******* interoperability.

*****, ********** ***** *** ****** *****.

** ** * *** *********** ****** *** *****: ** *** camera ******* *.***, *** ** **** ** ******* ** ** the *******, *** ****** ***** ** ** *********** ** ***/***.

*** *** ********** *********(*** ******** ***** *** **** ******* ** them **** ***, *** * ***** ******) **'* * *** challenge: ***** ** *** **** *********** *** *** *******. ** even *** ** ********* * ****** ****** *** **** *********** is *******, ** ***** ** * *** *** ****** ** control **.

**** ** *** ******* ******* ******* ****** *****://*******.***/#****=****

***** *** *** ******* **** *******. ***** *** ********* ** the ********** *********' **** *** *** ***? **** ** *** cases ***** *** **** ** ******* ** ** *** *******, and *** ***** **** *******?

* ***** **** **** ********** ** *** *** ****** *****. Notably, ****** *******'* ******* ******* *** ********** ****-** **** ********* for *** **** *.*** *** **** *.***. **** ***** ****, you *** **** **** ** **** **** ** *** *** broweser **** ** ******, ****, ******, ******* *** *.*** *********.

*** *** **** **** ******* ** *****://***.******-********.***/**/*********-******/*****-******/?***=**&******=********&********=

** ****** *** ******* ******* **** ******** * *********** **** manufacturers *** ***** ********** *** ** ******** **** ** ***** of ******* *** **** * ***** **** ******* (***) ** widely ********* *** *********. **** ***** ********* ****** * *********** impact ** ********* *** ******* ******** *********** *******, *** *** challenges ** "******* ****" ** ********** *****, ** ***** ****** an ****** **** ** **** ** ****...?

******** **** ** ***** ** ******* *** **** * ***** with ******* (***) ** ****** ********* *** *********

*** **** ** **** ******? ******** ****** *** ***** ************ have **** ********* *** ****, **** ***** *** **'* ***** been **** **** * *****. ** ** *****, ************* ***** is ***** ** ****** * ****** **** ********** / *** stream **** *** ** ********* **** ******** ***** ********** / fps ******* ***, ** *************, ** **** *** ******** ** support **** (*.*. ****** ********* *** *** ******** ******) *** historically **** ** ************.

****, **** *.*** ***** *** * ***** **** ******* **** be ********* **************. **** * ******* ***** ******* **** ** wife ** ****** ********* **********.

********* ** *********'* ***** *****,

****://***.*********.***/******/*****************.***

* ***** ***** *** **** ********** **** ** ***** ********.

*** **** **** ****** ** ******* ** **** ********

*. **********, *. ********** *** *. **ö****, ***: ********* *** indication *** *******, *****-*****, **********, ******, ***. ****

*********** *******

**** ** *******, ******** ******** *.*** *** ***** * **** and * **** *** **** *** ********* ********* ****** (*** in *****): ****, ***, *********, *********, *****, *******, ******, ********, AVTech, ******, **, ****, *******, *********, *****, *****, *******, ****, LecVox, ***, ******, *******, *********

*** * ***** **** ** ***** ****** *** ****

*** ******** *** ******* ** *****, **** ** *** *** load ** *****'* ******* ***% ******** ** ***** *** ****** something ******* ** *** ******* **% ****, **** **** ****** on *** **** ****** ** ** *** *****. **** ********** to *** *** **** ********* **** *** *********** ******** ** the ******** *** ****, *** ***** ** *** *** **** gains, ******** * ***** ****** ******** ********

*'* ** **** ** *** **** ******** ** ******** ******** conditions, ** ** ***** ****** **** **** *** *** ********** of *.***, ** ************* ** *** **** *****.

*************, **** *** ******** ************ *** **, ** **** ** reportable **********. * ***** **** ******* **** ***** **** **** difference, ** **** ** *.*%

***** *** ******* *** ********* ******** *** *.*** *** *****, we **** ***** **** ** ****** ** *.*** ******* ** 9-16 *.*** ******* **** **** **** **** ****** ******** ** crawl. ***** **** ***** ** *** **** ****** * ******* client ******** *** * ********* ***** *********** **** *** **** willing ** *** *** ******** *** *** ***** *-** ****** who *** **** *****. **** *********** ***** *.*** * ******** for **.

******: **** ******* *** **** ***** ** *** *** **********:*.*** ******* *** ** ******** *****, *** ** **** ***** Revert ** *.***

**** ** ** ***** ** ***********

Login to read this IPVM report.
Why do I need to log in?
IPVM conducts unique testing and research funded by member's payments enabling us to offer the most independent, accurate and in-depth information.

Related Reports

Speco Ultra Intensifier Tested on Apr 22, 2019
While ISC West 2019 named Speco's Ultra Intensifier the best new "Video Surveillance Cameras IP", IPVM testing shows the camera suffers from...
Arecont Favorability Results 2019 on Apr 22, 2019
Arecont's net negativity remained the same in IPVM's 2019 integrator study, though integrator's feeling became relatively more neutral compared to...
H.265 Usage Statistics on Apr 19, 2019
H.265 has been available in IP cameras for more than 5 years and, in the past few years, the number of manufacturers supporting this codec has...
ACRE Acquires RS2, Explains Acquisition Strategy on Apr 19, 2019
ACRE continues to buy, now acquiring RS2, just 5 months after buying Open Options. One is a small access control manufacturer from Texas, the...
The Fastest Growing Video Surveillance Sales Organization Ever - Verkada on Apr 17, 2019
Verkada has the fastest growing video surveillance sales organization ever. In less than 2 years, they already have more salespeople in the US...
Door Operators Access Control Tutorial on Apr 17, 2019
Doors equipped with door operators, specialty devices that automate opening and closing, tend to be quite complex. The mechanisms needed to...
Dahua Repositionable IR Multi-Imager Camera Tested on Apr 16, 2019
Dahua has released their first repositionable multi-imager camera, the Multi-Flex 4x2MP, claiming integrated IR, true WDR, and flexible...
Axis Supports HD Analog on Apr 15, 2019
In 2017, Axis declared 'Everything is IP': Now, in 2019, Axis has released support for HD analog, with their new encoders.  Why the change?...
ISC West 2019 Report on Apr 12, 2019
The IPVM team has finished at the Sands looking at what companies are offering and how they are changing their positioning. See below for 50+...
Pole Mount Camera Installation Guide on Apr 11, 2019
Poles are a popular but challenging choice for deploying surveillance cameras outdoors. Poles are indispensable for putting cameras at the right...

Most Recent Industry Reports

19 Facial Recognition Providers Profiled on Apr 23, 2019
IPVM interviewed 19 facial recognition providers at ISC West to understand their claimed accuracy, success and positioning. 9 from China, where...
Locking Down Network Connections Guide on Apr 23, 2019
Accidents and inside attacks are risks when network connections are not locked down. Security and video surveillance systems should be protected...
Hikvision Admits USA Sales Falling on Apr 22, 2019
Hikvision, in a new Chinese financial filing, has admitted that its USA sales are now falling. Less than a year after the US government passed a...
Speco Ultra Intensifier Tested on Apr 22, 2019
While ISC West 2019 named Speco's Ultra Intensifier the best new "Video Surveillance Cameras IP", IPVM testing shows the camera suffers from...
Arecont Favorability Results 2019 on Apr 22, 2019
Arecont's net negativity remained the same in IPVM's 2019 integrator study, though integrator's feeling became relatively more neutral compared to...
H.265 Usage Statistics on Apr 19, 2019
H.265 has been available in IP cameras for more than 5 years and, in the past few years, the number of manufacturers supporting this codec has...
ACRE Acquires RS2, Explains Acquisition Strategy on Apr 19, 2019
ACRE continues to buy, now acquiring RS2, just 5 months after buying Open Options. One is a small access control manufacturer from Texas, the...
Access Control Course Spring 2019 - Last Chance on Apr 19, 2019
 Register for the Spring 2019 Access Control Course----Closed IPVM offers the most comprehensive access control course in the industry. Unlike...
Riser vs Plenum Cabling Explained on Apr 18, 2019
You could be spending twice as much for cable as you need. The difference between 'plenum' rated cable and 'riser' rated cable is subtle, but the...
Verint Victimized By Ransomware on Apr 18, 2019
Verint, which is best known in the physical security industry for video surveillance but has built a sizeable cybersecurity business as well, was...

The world's leading video surveillance information source, IPVM provides the best reporting, testing and training for 10,000+ members globally. Dedicated to independent and objective information, we uniquely refuse any and all advertisements, sponsorship and consulting from manufacturers.

About | FAQ | Contact