Verkada Cloud VMS/Cameras TestedBy Sean Patton, Published May 02, 2019, 10:02am EDT (Research)
Verkada is arguably the most ambitious video surveillance startup in many years. The company is developing their own cameras, their own VMS, their own cloud management software and their own video analytics, offering what they describe as the "Security Camera System Built for the Modern Enterprise".
We purchased 2 Verkada cameras and VMS licenses, and in this report, we examine Verkada's main strengths and primary weaknesses including:
- Live and Playback Video Streaming Performance
- Camera Configuration Capabilities
- Enterprise VMS Feature Support
- Secure Remote Connectivity Options
- Alert/Alarm Notification Performance
- Third-Party Integration Support
- Software and Firmware Updates
- Country of Origin
UPDATE: This test was first released on January 28, 2019 but was substantially updated on May 2, 2019.
Verkada is easy to setup and easy to share video, as they market. However it is missing a number of fundamental VMS features, has limited camera options, and suffers performance issues.
They have received significant funding for a surveillance startup (most recently $40 million), and will need to address the limitations while adding new features to compete with other cloud-first manufacturers like Eagle Eye, OpenEye and Milestone-backed startup Arcules.
Most notably, unlike all competitors except for Meraki, Verkada cameras are closed, locking end users to their platform and risking complete loss of functionality if users do not continue to pay the annual fee ($199 MSRP per camera).
Verkada will certainly improve as they have only been in development for a few years, working on cameras and VMS simultaneously, while almost all of their competitors have had many more years and generally only working on half of what Verkada aims to do. Of course, we cannot tell how much better Verkada will come but, given the company's aggressive well-funded approach, we will re-test periodically.
Verkada has several relative strengths coming from their use of camera-based video analytics, Internet connectivity and remote access as key functions of the platform:
- Remote access
- Cloud Backup of Video
- Live Local Streaming Support
- 2-Factor Authentication
- Instant Video Sharing
- Low Latency Streaming Options
- Time Lapse Video Review
- Per Camera Motion/Throughput/Storage Statistics
Verkada has several fundamental features that are missing or inferior compared to conventional VMSes:
- Significant Compression Artifacts
- Video Playback Buffering (From camera and Cloud backup)
- Limited Camera Settings/Configuration
- Out of Sync Camera Configuration Settings
- No Standalone Export Player
- No PTZ support
- Limited Fisheye Dewarping
- No third-party access or other integrations
- Delayed Camera Offline Alerts
The following 12-minute video overviews the Verkada Web Portal and Cameras, highlighting strengths and weaknesses:
Significant Compression Artifacts
Verkada cameras utilize H265 compression for streaming and recording video. However, the ghosting/doubling of moving objects in live and recorded video was mostly caused by Verkada's automatically configured WDR settings, and are not likely due to high compression in the camera.
The video artifacts are most noticeable when a person is moving across the field of view, and there is a ghost or double image of the person's face:
Verkada said this is most likely due to an automatically configured WDR setting in the camera. However, there is no option for the user to decrease the setting, Verkada support can adjust those settings remotely if the user contacts them.
Video Playback Buffering
Playback video is viewed from onboard camera storage unless viewing video that was previously Archived to cloud storage. Video would typically buffer for 3-5 seconds prior to starting playback, and when using 2x or 3x playback speeds, the video would stop to buffer every few seconds.
Verkada said that system Internet bandwidth is one of their primary concerns, and that support is able to remotely run outbound bandwidth testing from the camera to Verkada servers to determine where the bottleneck is. Again, there is no option for the user to run this test to troubleshoot the issue.
Cloud Video Backup - High Bandwidth Consumption, No Confirmation
Cloud video backup worked, however, bandwidth consumption was very high (at 5-9Mbps) and they provide no log nor confirmation that video is being backed.
Verkada includes 30-day cloud storage with each camera subscription, however, by default it is disabled. We enabled this on a D40 5MP minidome, backing up video over a week.
Output increased to 5Mbps-9Mbps, from ~100kbps-300kbps before Video Backup was enabled. The interface displays a warning when enabling Cloud Backup, "Enabling cloud backup will consume a significant amount of bandwidth".
There is no log or confirmation that video is backed up, and Verkada Support said there are only 2 ways to check:
- Look at "Traffic Out" under Stats and see that the upload is occurring
- Disconnect the camera and then play any footage that was uploaded before the camera was disconnected, whihc would indicate the footage has been backed up.
The camera was disconnected, and playback video from Cloud Backup could be reviewed, however, the video backup was 8-9 hours behind the current time. Also, as noted earlier in the test when reviewing video recorded on the camera, cloud backup video stops to buffer every few seconds when using 3x playback speeds (as seen by the spinning play/pause control in the lower lefthand corner):
Live Local Streaming Works Well
An update announced "local and live-low latency grids for up to twelve cameras", which was a weakness we found in our initial 2 tests. The feature works well, and is available for all Verkada customers, supporting local live streaming directly from cameras. Recorded video playback is not supported directly. Local streaming is noted by a "[LOCAL]" label in front of the camera name, but is only supported when viewing "SD" streams:
Local streaming uses a proxy connection to establish a secure connection between the Web Client and camera. We used Wireshark to view the client request for secure communications and direct encryption handshake with the camera. One piece of the communication packet was readable in plain text as "proxy.command.verkada.com":
Verkada previously only offered local viewing with "Offline Mode" which supported local streaming while Internet connectivity was lost, and required manual SSL-Certificate installation.
2-Factor Authentication (2FA) Support Solid
Verkada's 2FA was quick to setup and offers SMS and 3rd-party authenticator support. Verkada only offers per user profile configuration and requires manual configuration for every account. Though 2FA does not secure any VMS from all forms of remote exploit, it can prevent account misuse and prevent malicious users from attempting to access the system (IPVM 2-Factor Authentication Report).
Instant Video Sharing
A differentiating feature is Verkada's instant video sharing, which performed well in testing, but has some limitations. The feature allows a Site Admin to share a SMS, URL or video embed from a single Verkada camera to any web browser.
The following 2 minute video demonstrates the feature:
The SMS and URL links can be set to expire, and the Video Embed link can be limited to a single web domain (e.g. "*.ipvm.com"). The links can be "revoked" or disabled at any time prior to the programmed expiration.
There is a counter for how many times the link has been viewed, however there is no audit log of who has accessed the video, taken snapshots, or what video they have reviewed because the links are not login secured.
Mapping, multi camera viewing and camera configuration are not supported through the video share link, however people and vehicle search is supported.
Time Lapse Playback
Verkada offers a time-lapse playback option, which plays an entire day of video back in 30 seconds. It is not helpful for identifying when an individual person walked by the camera, but for identifying when stationary objects like vehicles, tools, or bags were in a location.
However, when previewing the Timelapse Search, Verkada returns some of the days as "unavailable". Once the day is selected the timelapse plays.
Per Camera Storage Statistics
Each camera has 4 Statistics that are viewed for user selectable time lengths (Motion, Online, Traffic Out, Traffic In). However, atypical for most VMSes there is not a summary report or chart for totals for all cameras:
Limited Camera Settings
Atypical for enterprise VMSes with proprietary closed cameras there are very few camera controls available. There are no options for resolution, frame rate, compression or imager controls (WDR, Brightness, Contrast). There are no options for static IP addresses, or copying setting configuration from one camera to another.
Verkada said they are purposely limiting the configuration options to the minimum levels. They said they will be increasing access to more of the configuration and features as the platform matures.
Video Latency Variable per Stream Mode
Streaming video in "SD - 300Kbps" mode resulted in a long latency of 6-8 seconds. Switching to "Live Low-Latency" mode, which is labeled as a "Beta" feature, decreased the delay to 2-3 seconds. This lower latency mode is similar to cloud-VMS performance in other IPVM tests (Arcules: 2-3 seconds, Eagle Eye: 2-4 seconds). "HD - 1Mbps" streaming results in a latency between 10-20 seconds.
The resolution for Live and SD streaming modes is 800x600, and 3MP - 5MP in HD mode (depending on the camera model). Verkada said Live mode has a shorter buffer, which can result in more streaming errors with limited bandwidth Internet connections. The Live video stream was measured at ~100kbps, compared to 200-300kbps for SD mode. Verkada said that in addition to the shorter buffer, the Live mode video has a higher compression setting.
Live Low-Latency Streaming (2-3 seconds):
SD - 300Kbps Streaming (6-8 seconds):
Out of Sync Configuration
Camera setting changes in the VMS are synchronized automatically with the camera but typically take 10-15 seconds to apply in the camera. It was noted in testing that changing settings during that 10-15 second time frame could result in the camera settings being out of sync with the VMS settings. There is no option for forcing synchronization other than rebooting the camera.
In this example, the VMS reports the image orientation as Normal, while the camera stream is rotated 90 degrees clockwise:
Camera Setting Synchronization Issues Continue
There is still a significant delay of settings in the camera versus what the interface is displaying, resulting in incorrect configuration options (the live stream is right side up, the Orientation view is upside down, both say "Normal"):
No Standalone Export Player
Verkada offers a single format, MP4 for exporting video. This video format was easy to playback on various devices, however, they provided no security, watermarking, or tracking of the video once it is exported. Additionally, because Verkada does not have a video file player, there is no multi-camera playback once the video is exported.
Most enterprise VMS platforms provide a video download format with a standalone player, which facilitate synchronized playback of multiple videos, typically offer digital zoom and snapshots, in addition to playback controls for frame-by-frame review or fast/slow motion playback. Standalone players also include a software video decoder, which means video can be played back on any PC without having to manually install a secondary media player, most commonly VLC. Digital watermarking and password protected encryption are typically an option when using a proprietary video format.
No PTZ / Video Encoder support
There are no controls for PTZ cameras in the web or mobile clients. Verkada does not offer a PTZ or video encoders and said it is not on their roadmap due to low demand from customers.
Limited Fisheye Dewarping
Verkada offers a 12MP fisheye camera (model: D80) that supports camera based dewarping, however, it only offers 180 degree panoramic and 4-Way Split. No unwarped 360-degree fisheye or 360-degree Panoramic dewarp is supported. Also, the 4 views in the 4-Way Split mode cannot be moved or customized:
Verkada said the fisheye is a focus of development updates, and that the views in the 4-way Split are adjustable by Verkada support, but confirmed those controls are hidden in the web UI.
No Third-Party Access Control or Other Integrations
Unlike most enterprise VMSes, Verkada does not support any 3rd party access control or other integrations.
Verkada said they are open to 3rd-party integrations and noted they are in development for video event integration with a few partners.
Delayed Camera Offline Alerts
Verkada supports sending email and SMS alerts when a camera is offline, motion is detected, or camera tampering is triggered. However, the camera offline email alert consistently was received ~20 minutes after the camera went offline:
Motion detection and camera tampering alerts were received within 1 minute of the incidents.
Camera Country of Origin / Huawei HiSilicon Used
The cameras we purchased were manufactured In Taiwan:
We opened a D40 model, and confirmed that it utilizes a Huawei HiSilicon HI3516 SoC:
Yes - we, like many others in the enterprise security camera market, use HiSilicon chips. However, unlike some OEMs, Verkada's engineering team in the United States owns and develops the full software stack for our cameras all the way down to the code used to boot the device. In addition, none of our cameras are made in China. We have implemented an end to end security architecture into our platform, which ensures all video is encrypted and secure on the device, in transit, and in the cloud. We have also engaged several third party firms to run exhaustive security evaluations of both our hardware and software. These external tests combined with our own internal testing give us the confidence to stand behind the security of our products. As IPVM’s testing showed, our cameras do not accept any inbound network connections and have no open inbound network ports and communicate outbound only to Verkada's Command Platform and NTP time servers.
We are closely watching how the NDAA will be implemented and intend to always comply with all applicable laws.
Note: Most 'enterprise security cameras' from competitors like Avigilon, Axis, Hanwha, etc. do not use Huawei Hisilicon with e.g., Avigilon using no Huawei and the other two manufacturers in their budget offerings.
Vivotek Supplier for Verkada
Shipping records indicate Vivotek is the supplier for Verkada, as the excerpt below shows:
No ONVIF / 3rd Party Camera Support
Verkada does not support ONVIF or direct driver support for any 3rd-party cameras.
DHCP Support Only
Verkada cameras do not support static IP addresses. Verkada recommended using DHCP with MAC reservations if more control over IP address is required.
The cameras also do not currently support IPv6, however, Verkada said that could be enabled through a firmware update and has not been requested by any customers.
Verkada said they automatically update the VMS software, adding features approximately once per month and releasing minor updates and bug fixes weekly. Cameras firmware updates also follow that schedule. In our testing, we have seen these automatic updates work.
Verkada sells 4 camera models with variable onboard storage retention amounts (30-days to 120-days):
- D30: 3MP Indoor Dome with IR, $699 - $1,699
- D40: 5MP Indoor Minidome with IR, $799 - $1,899
- D50: 3MP Outdoor Dome with IR, $899 - $1,999
- D80: 12MP Indoor/Outdoor Fisheye with IR, $1,799 - $2,499 (30 and 60-day option only)
Camera licenses are sold in 1 or multi-year lengths and cost between $199 up to $1,599 for a 10-year license. Note: On May 1, Verkada increased their prices significantly, in particular, the 'Command' subscription multi-year licenses (e.g., 5-year jumped from $599 to $799 and 10-year jumped from $1,199 to $1,599).
In Depth Camera Test
Comprehensive IPVM Verkada camera testing revealed numerous video quality problems not found in commercial IP cameras. Also we compared Verkada to Axis and Hikvision, and shared Verkada's feedback to our test results.
- Heavy nighttime detail loss compared to competitors in low light
- Significant detail loss in daytime scenes compared to competitors
- Reduced detail in WDR scenes due to artifacts on moving objects
- Higher bandwidth consumption than competitive cameras
A sample Image from the full test report:
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