The Passback Problem

By: Brian Rhodes, Published on Sep 14, 2016

Every security system has flaws, even high-tech ones. While Electronic Access Control helps keep sensitive areas safe, it is not without weaknesses.

One of the most troubling vulnerabilities is called 'Passback' - the practice of using someone else's credentials to gain entry. In this note, we take a look at the problem and how designers can minimize vulnerabilities, looking at:

  • Passback vs Tailgaiting
  • Software solutions including time limit and reader pattern and flow
  • Other solutions including biometrics, cameras, turnstiles and signange
  • Ignoring it

***** ******** ****** *** flaws, **** ****-**** ****. While ********** ****** ******* helps **** ********* ***** safe, ** ** *** without **********.

*** ** *** **** troubling *************** ** ****** 'Passback' - *** ******** of ***** ******* ****'* credentials ** **** *****. In **** ****, ** take * **** ** the ******* *** *** designers *** ******** ***************, looking **:

  • ******** ** ***********
  • ******** ********* ********* **** limit *** ****** ******* and ****
  • ***** ********* ********* **********, cameras, ********** *** ********
  • ******** **

[***************]

The ******* *******

'********' ** *** ********** term *** '******* ***********', taken **** *** ******* of *** ****** ******* through ** ******-******* *********. Suppose '****** *' ***** their ***** *** ****** through ********, *** '****** B' ** *** ******* access **** *** ****. 'Passback' ****** **** '****** A' ***** ***** ***** to '****** *' ** that ****** *** **** access.

**** ******** ** ******* equivalent ** ******** * door *** ******* ** mail **** ** ** outside ******, ** ******* your ******** **** ******* else. ** ****, ** means **** *** ****** is *** *********** ****** in *** *** ** was ********, *** ** worst ** ***** **** the ****** *** ** knowledge ** * ********* threat.

Less ***** **** **********, ***** * *******

** ***** ** ******** threats,************ * '******' ****, while ******** ** ********* less *******. **** ******** events ***** **** ****** try ** **** **** to ********* *** ****** control ******, ***** ********** typically ****** ******* **. So ** *******, ******** is ****** ** ****** with '****' ******* ** with ****** ********* ** users ** ***** ******* credentials.

****** *******, '**********' ***** that **** * **** has **** ****** ** a **********, ** ** left **** ** **** more **** *** ********** is ******* ** ****-*******. In ******** ** '********', 'tailgating' ****** ******** *** requirement ** **** ********** credentials. ******* '****-********' ********, especially ***** ** *** 'Pattern *** ****' *******, may ** **** ** combat *** '**********' *******.

*** ****, *** ************* - ****** ******* Tutorial.

Basic ******** *********

** ******* *** ****, Access ******* ******* ***** feature '****-********' ********, ***** generally ********* * *** of ******** ******* ** credential ***. *** *******:

**** *****:* **** ****** ** used ** *** **** reader ***** ****** * certain ****** ** ****. While **** ********** * decidedly '***-****' ********, ** is *** ******* ** implement. ****** ******** * card ** ** **** on *** **** ****** for * ****** ** 3 ** * ******* discourages *** *********** ** improperly '*******-****' * **********. However, **** **** ** control *** ** ************ to *****, ** *** occasion **** ************ **** something ***** ******* * card, ****** ********** ** a ************, ** **** some ***** ********** ****** for ******* **-************* ******* an *******.

****** ******* *** ****: **** **** ** control ******** ********** ***** follow * ******* ******* within * ******. *** example, * ********** **** be **** ** ** 'OUT' ****** ****** ** can ** **** *** an '**' ********. ******** a ********** ****** ** used ** ***** '******** B' ** '******** *' has *** ***** **** exited. **** ****** ** anti-passback ** *** **** comprehensive ** *********** *** problem, *** ** ******** the **** ************* *** places ** ******** ** having *** ***** ********** within * ********, **** doors **** *** ************ used.

**** ****** *** ****** Patterning *** ******** ******** that ****, *** *** all, ****** ******* ********** software ********. *** *****, more ****** *********, ********** hardware ********* ******* ********* is ********.

Other *********

************ ******** ******** ********* involves **** **** **** software. *** *******, ** our********* ********* ** ************ and ****************, **** **** ** solution ***** **** *****, and **** **** **% ** those ********* ********* ***** more **** *** ******** method:

*** **** ****** '***** solutions' ******* ***** ******** cited:

  • **********:* **** *** ** prevent ******** ** ** credential ***** ** ********** instead ** '*********' ***********. Tying ****** *********** ** unique ******** ******** ********* stops **** *******.
  • *******:******* ****** ******** ******** using ************ ******* ** record *** ****** ** misuse *** ********* ** access ******.
  • **********:*** **** ****** '******' method **** ***** **********, revolving *****, ** ******** to ********** ******* **** than ** ****** ****** entry ** *** ****.
  • *******:*** **** ****** '****' measure ** ***** **** indirectly ** ********* ******* the **** *** *** use ** ***** ** remind ****** **** ******** the ****** ******* ****** or ********** ******** ********.

Ignoring ************ **** ******

*******, ******* *** ***** identified ** *** ******* was ******** *** *****. About **% ** ********* said **** ****** ** nothing, ******* ********** ** is *** ******, ** it ** *** ****** of * **** ** warrant ***************.

******** ** ****** *** threat *** **** ******* for ****, *** ***** so ********** *** *********** to ********* *** **** invalidate *** ***** ******** that ******* ***** ********** access ******* ****** *********** mechanical **** *** *****.

Comments (8)

Good article. At least you started out okay. It seems that you are using the terms passback and piggyback as synonyms and then juxtaposing them to tailgating.

In their common use, tailgating and piggybacking are synonyms but passback is entirely different.

The big difference is that passback is an act done by two or more people specifically to deceive the system while tailgating (or piggybacking) is more commonly an act of convenience done by a single person.

I agree they are distinct issues, which is why our tailgating report (Tailgating - Access Control Tutorial) gets separate treatment.

However, the methods of dealing with both issues can be similar (ie: cameras, biometrics, signage) so that is where the lines blur a bit. Especially given the results of how APB is practically addressed, 'tailgating' enters the conversation.

If only dealing with tailgating was as simple as the 'antipassback' settings are!

So is piggybacking "users sharing credentials" or not?

Piggybacking is one form of sharing credentials.

Thank you for this article. The problem may be solved using face verification. Using it an access control management software checks that it's exactly card owner has applied the card. I'm from AxxonSoft and this scenario is frequently used by our partners. It's much more reliable than face recognition itself, may be used at must important access control points only and does not need physical contact like fingerprint readers.

Igor, are you making the point that biometric authentication, unlike possession and knowledge authentication, makes passback much less likely? If so, I agree, but the type of authentication does not impact the likelihood of tailgating or piggybacking as far as I can figure....

Brian, good article, as always. Passback is very different from Tailgating or Piggybacking. Tailgating is when somebody tucks in behind an authorized user without their knowledge or consent. Piggybacking is when the authorized user is complicit in allowing the unauthorized user through the portal.

I have a number of high-security sites I visit that the order we card in and out of areas matters.

I have to enter a secured area after my escort and leave before my escort, ( so I am not in while my escort is on the out).

I am curious how common this is

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