Directory of Video Surveillance Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities and Exploits

Author: Brian Karas, Published on Nov 16, 2016

This list compiles reported exploits for security products, and is updated regularly.

We have summarized exploits by date and by manufacturer, providing a brief description of the exploit along with affected product(s) and firmware version(s), when known.

Historical List Of Exploits

This list contains a summary of known exploits in reverse chronological order. Additional details are provided in a section for each manufacturer below. Manufacturers with an asterisk (*) next to their name indicate products that were OEM'd under multiple brand names beyond the original manufacturer listed.

  • December 2017 - Axis Vulnerabilities linked to DHCP and UPnP libraries in BisyBox, and vulnerability in CGI executables
  • November 2017 - Hikvision Wifi cameras have hard-coded SSID, allows for rogue access point attack (7)
  • November 2017 - Vivotek remote stack overflow vulnerability (3)
  • November 2017 - Dahua Hard-coded backdoor credentials in camera and NVR firmware (6)
  • October 2017 - Uniview recorders vulnerable to admin password retrieval backdoor
  • August 2017 - Hikvision Tools allows admin password reset in older firmware (6)
  • August 2017 - Hikvision iVMS-4200 stores passwords with reversible encryption (5)
  • August 2017 - NeoCoolCam - iDoorbell product buffer overflow vulnerability allow various exp loits
  • July 2017 - Dahua - Buffer overflow vulnerability in password field (5)
  • July 2017 - Vivotek - CGI script exploits (2)
  • July 2017 - Axis - Buffer overflow vulnerability in 3rd party software toolkit used for ONVIF (3)
  • June 2017 - FLIR - Vulnerabilities allow remote code execution, unauthenticated viewing of live images, and reveal hard-coded accounts
  • June 2017 - Persirai botnet attacks various consumer/SMB-oriented cameras.
  • May 2017 - Hanwha - User can exploit cached data from a previous session to gain access to certain recorders
  • March 2017 - Hikvision - Backdoor allows unauthorized access to admin interface (4)
  • March 2017 - Axis - Multiple vulnerabilities related to CSRF attacks (2)
  • March 2017 - Dahua - Backdoor allows attacker to read user/password list (4)
  • March 2017 - Ubiquiti - Command injection vulnerability
  • February 2017 - Geutebrück - Authentication bypass.
  • February 2017 - Dahua - Multiple vulnerabilities in DHI-HCVR7216A-S3 recorders (3)
  • December 2016 - Sony - Attackers can remotely enable telnet on cameras.
  • December 2016 - Hikvision - hik-online.com servers susceptible to XXE exploit. (3)
  • November 2016 - Milesight - Cameras have a number of vulnerabilities that allow remote exploit.
  • November 2016 - Siemens - Remote privilege escalation possible via exploiting web interface.
  • October 2016 - NUUO - Insecure default credentials. (2)
  • October 2016 - Dahua*, XiongMai - Mirai botnet. (2)
  • September 2016 - AVer - EH6108H+ DVR Multiple vulnerabilities
  • August 2016 - NUUO - Remote root exploit and remote command injection vulnerability. (1)
  • July 2016 - Axis - Remote root exploit. (1)
  • July 2016 - Pelco - Digital Sentry hard coded username/password backdoor.
  • March 2016 - TVT* - Remote code execution.
  • March 2016 - HID - Command injection vulnerability allows attacker full control of device.
  • Febrary 2016 - Unknown DVR OEM - Authentication bypass, other issues.
  • August 2015 - Dedicated Micros - Devices have no default password, allowing full access.
  • June 2015 Avigilon - ACC - Allows attackers to read arbitrary files.
  • October 2014 - Bosch - 630/650/670 Recorders - Multiple exploits allow an attacker to get root console and also retrieve config data.
  • September 2014 - Hikvision - 7200 series NVRs - Buffer overflow to gain root access. (2)
  • November 2013 - Dahua* - DVR's/NVR's - Execute admin commands without authentication (1)
  • November 2013 - Vivotek - RTSP stream authentication can be bypassed. (1)
  • August 2013 - Hikvision - IP Cameras - Remote root exploit. (1)

Exploits For Specific Companies

Aver

Firmware verion X9.03.24.00.07l, and possibly earlier versions, contain multiple vulnerabilities including hard-coded admin-level accounts and authentication bypass exploits. Additional details in CERT report.

Avigilon

ACC versions prior to 4.12.0.53 and prior to 5.4.2.21 allowed for arbitrary files to be retrieved through specially crafted URLs, giving anyone with remote access to the server the ability to access files at will, without authentication, making this a critical vulnerability. Additional details are in the CVE Report for this vulnerability.

Axis

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(4) Axis announced patches for vulnerabilities common to DHCP and UPnP code in BusyBox linux, and also for information disclosure vulnerabilities in CGI executables. Additional details in Axis 5 Vulnerabilities Examined.

(3) An exploit in a toolkit used for ONVIF support in Axis, and other brands, was discovered. While it has the potential to impact multiple products, proof-of-concept code was only developed/shown for Axis products.

(2) A Google researcher identified multiple vulnerabilities in Axis cameras. The vulnerabilities are relatively low risk, and are primarily patched in newer firmware, but could have the potential to disable or alter camera functionality if successfully used.

(1)Products with firmware from versions 5.20.x to 6.2.x had a vulnerability that allowed for an attacker to gain access to a root console on the device, allowing them full control of the device. Attackers did not need to know usernames/passwords, or other information about the product in order to exploit it, making this an extremely severe vulnerability. Axis issued a press release on this exploit, and IPVM covered the Axis exploit as well.

Bosch

DVR 630/650/670 units with firmware version 2.12, and possibly older versions, are vulnerable to exploits where attackers can send specially-crafted URLs to the device to enable telnet access, which provides a root console that does not require authentication. No special software is required to carry out this attack. Vulnerability details and proof of concept examples are listed in ExploitDB under ID 34956.

Dahua

(6) Hard-coded credentials were found in firmware for cameras and NVRs, allowing for rogue firmware uploads. Additional detail: Dahua Hard Coded Credentials Vulnerability.

(5) A buffer overflow vulnerability was discovered in Dahua cameras where excessive-length password text can be entered, triggering an overflow. Additional coverage: Dahua Suffers Second Major Vulnerability, Silent.

(4) Dahua cameras and DVRs/NVRs expose a config file containing username/password info to unauthenticated HTTP requests. Additional coverage: Dahua Backdoor Uncovered.

(3) Vulnerabilities found in Dahua's DHI-HCVR7216A-S3 recorder, including cleartext passwords, auto-admin login allows data sniffing, admin password bypass, unencrypted communications allows man-in-the-middle attack.

(2) Dahua camera and NVR firmware prior to January 2015 shipped with telnet enabled, which coupled with well-known admin credentials allowed attackers to gain access to a root shell and exploit the device. The most popular exploit was the Mirai botnet, which took down internet sites and service providers in October 2016. Products OEM'd from Dahua, which include multiple brands such as FLIR and Honeywell, were also affected.

(1) Recorders with firmware 2.608 could be exploited to accept certain admin commands without authentication, allowing an attacker to retrieve configuration information from the device to change user passwords. ExploitDB contains additional details under ID 29673

Dedicated Micros

Dedicated Micros DVRs, including at least DV-IP Express, SD Advanced, SD, EcoSense, and DS2, ship with no default credentials, and insecure protocols enabled. This can allow attackers to take over the device and/or to sniff network traffic during setup. Additional details in VU 276148.

FLIR

Multiple vulnerabilities, with no firmware fix, including ability to see live images without authentication, remote code execution, and hard-coded accounts, outlined in Beyond Security disclosure. Additional details and analysis in: FLIR Thermal Camera Multiple Vulnerabilities, No Fix.

Geutebrück

In G-Cam/EFD-2250 with firmware version 1.11.0.12 an authentication bypass vulnerability has been identified. The existing file system architecture could allow attackers to bypass the access control that may allow remote code execution. Details in ICS CERT Advisory.

Hanwha

SRN-4000, SRN-1673S, SRN-873S, and SRN-473S recorders have a vulnerability in some firmware versions where a user who was previously logged into an affected device and use cached data/files to gain access to the same recorders management interface, bypassing the standard authentication screen. Additional detail in the ICS-CERT release and Hanwha Vulnerability Analysis report.

HID

VertX and EDGE systems with firmware prior to March 2016 are susceptible to a command injection exploit, where an attacker can cause the controllers to lock or unlock doors without authentication, as well as perform a number of other functions on the controller. This vulnerability was detailed on Trend Micro's blog, technical details can be found in this github repository.

Hikvision

(7) Some Hikvision Wifi cameras attempt to connect to SSID "davinci" by default, allowing an attacker to setup a rogue access point with this SSID to gain access to camera for further exploit.

(6) Hikvision's algorithm for generating security codes to reset admin passwords is cracked, with tools released to enable easy code generation.

(5) iVMS-4200 has password recovery feature that divulges admin password encrypted with reversible method.

(4) A potential vulnerability was first reported in March 2017, and then verified in a US Department of Homeland Security release. Attackers can bypass authentication measures to get access to admin-level features in the web interface of affected Hikvision cameras.

(3) A security researcher found hik-online.com servers vulnerable to an XML External Entity (XXE) exploit. This vulnerability allowed the researcher to retrieve arbitrary files from the server, exposing users to the risk of having data on the public IP/port of their registered devices exposed. Further coverage available in our Hikvision cloud server vulnerability report.

Both of the exploits listed below are believed to be fixed in current firmware, though an exact firmware version that addresses these issues is not known.

(2) NVR's with firmware 2.2.10, and possibly other versions, contain a vulnerability that allows for a buffer overflow attack, enabling attackers to gain control of the device. This vulnerability was examined and described by research firm Rapid7. Hikvision

(1) Hikvision IP cameras with firmware v4.1.0 b130111, and possibly other versions, can be attacked to gain access to the admin account, bypass authentication entirely using hard-coded credentials, or to execute arbitrary code through a buffer overflow attack. Core security issued a report detailing these exploits.

Milesight

Milesight camera firmware prior to ~November 2016 may contain a number of vulnerabilities including hard-coded credentials and the ability to execute admin commands via unauthenticated CGI calls, making the cameras highly vulnerable to attacks.

NeoCoolCam

HTTP and RTSP service are vulnerable to multiple forms of buffer overflow attacks. Devices use uPNP to open ports in firewall, making them exposed by default in many installs. ~170K units impacted. Full details in Bitdefender whitepaper on NeoCoolCam vulnerability.

Nuuo

(2) Nuuo NT-4040 Titan firmware version NT-4040_01.07.0000.0015_1120, contains default credentials of admin:admin, and localdisplay:111111. A remote network attacker can gain privileged access to a vulnerable device. Further information can be found in CERT Vulnerability Listing for this issue.

(1) Multiple devices, including the NVRmini, NVRmini2, Crystal, Titan and NVRSolo with firmware prior to 3.0.8 have multiple vulnerabilities that allow for remote code execution, remote root exploit, remote file deletion, and other attacks. Exploits are listed on ExploitDB under multiple IDs, including: 40200, 40209, 40210, 40211, 40212, 40213, 40214, 40215. Each of these represents a critical vulnerability that is easy for an attacker to execute against the device.

Unknown DVR OEM

An unknown manufacturer of DVR's sold under various brands has firmware with multiple exploits, including ability to bypass authentication and get telent access. Details can be found on the researchers blog.

Pelco

Digital Sentry products running firmware prior to 7.13.84 contained a hard-coded admin account that could be used to take full control of the device by a remote attacker. IPVM covered this vulnerability when it was made public, and CERT also contains additional details.

Sony

Attackers can remotely enable telnet on Gen 5 and Gen 6 cameras with firmware prior to 1.86.00 and 2.7.2 respectively, enabling them to potentially login as root. Additional details in our coverage of this exploit.

Siemens

Specially crafted URLs allow an attacker to gain admin-level privileges on affected cameras. List of affected cameras and recommended firmware versions to resolve this issue are provided by Siemens.

TVT

Specially crafted URLs can be used to cause the recorders manufactured by TVT to execute arbitrary commands. At least 79 distinct brands OEM'd these units, including well-known brands like ADI and Q-See. Rotem Kerner documented the exploit on his site, and also provided IPVM with additional details on how he crafted the exploit.

Ubiquiti

A command injection vulnerability was reported in firmware prior to AirOS 8.0.1. Relatively low risk of exploit, but could enable severe holes in network, such as reverse shells, if properly executed.

Uniview

Admin password hash can be retrieved from Uniview recorders, and then used to login as admin, allowing full access. Details covered in Uniview Recorder Backdoor Examined.

Vivotek

(3) Potential for stack overflow, likely resulting in denial of service, via malformed URL calls. Details in Vivotek Remote Stack Overflow Vulnerability.

(2) CGI scripts on Vivotek cameras can be used to access files and run commands as root. Additional coverage: Wrongly Accused Critical Vulnerability for Vivotek

(1) Firmware 0105a, 0105b, and possibly other versions, are susceptible to having RTSP authentication bypassed, allowing video streams to be viewed without authentication. Firmware after 0301c should not be affected. Additional information from Core security: Vivotek RTSP auth bypass.

XiongMai

Xiongmai firmware prior to January 2015 shipped with telnet enabled, which coupled with well-known admin credentials allowed attackers to gain access to a root shell and exploit the device. The most popular exploit was the Mirai botnet, which targeted Dahua and Xiongmai devices, and took down internet sites and service providers in October 2016. Due to Xiongmai being primarily an OEM component supplier, many affected products were sold under alternate brands.

10 reports cite this report:

2018 Video Surveillance Cameras Overview on Dec 11, 2017
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IP Camera Specification / RFP Guide 2017 on Aug 14, 2017
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Axis Criticizes OEMs: "When You Buy An Axis Camera, An Axis Camera Is What You Get!" on May 19, 2017
When you buy a Honeywell camera, you likely get a Hikvision, Dahua or some other company's product. The same goes for easily 100 different...
Dahua Backdoor Uncovered on Mar 06, 2017
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VPNs for Video Surveillance on Feb 07, 2017
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10 Manufacturer Cyber Security Compared on Dec 13, 2016
With the rise in exploits and growing awareness of cyber security issues in video surveillance, we tested ten different manufacturer's cameras....
Top Surprises in the Video Surveillance Industry 2016 on Nov 29, 2016
The top 3 surprises of 2016 for integrators surveyed by IPVM were: The race to bottom, repeating 2015's Top Surprise Result New -...
Network Security for IP Video Surveillance Guide 2016 on Feb 03, 2016
Keeping surveillance networks secure can be a daunting task, but there are several methods that can greatly reduce risk, especially when used in...
Remote Network Access for Video Surveillance on Mar 13, 2015
Remotely accessing video is difficult for 3 reasons. Private Networks: Almost all video surveillance uses private IP addresses, that are by...

Comments (29)

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If you know any exploits not listed here, please comment and I will update the report.

This is a great list!

This is a very useful list.

There is a Vulnerability regarding Dedicated Micros DVR, Note VU#276148.

Well so far, firmware updates seem to the standard thing to stay on top to combat the bulk of these vulnerabilities. This is irregardless of any manufacturer... Unfortunately, some companies are better about disseminating those updates than others.

Dahua, I sell your ****, but I know your ****. Get your **** together so I can sell more and tech less dammit!

Honestly though, my Dahua rep's been pretty good at getting us firmware, but having to work with her timezone to get support tends to be inconvenient. Having a regularly updated FTP directory of firmware (that isn't PAL focused) would be lovely. I'm about ready to start hosting it myself... I think though I want do it differently from ftp.asm.cz and 52.29.179.27

Robert Dahua factory FTP has both Pal and Ntsc firmwares, and is updated daily, are you working with the factory directly?

Yeah, but asking them for every single one when you aren't the primary tech support guy and just a sales engineer isn't very productive. My primary project manager is about as paranoid about firmware as it gets. Also...the great firewall of China has been nothing short of a pain in the ass for them to get support out to us as easily as they want.

Even the DahuaWiki, maintained by DahuaUSA itself doesn't get to access the firmware direct from the FTP.

whats the url?

the biggest exploit is the careless user/installer who does not change

default login credentials.

go to shodan hq

search for any manufacturers device

enter with default login

do as you want

Agreed, but manufacturers don't need to help. :)

Not surveillance but close:

HID VertX door controller exploit:

https://github.com/coldfusion39/VertXploit

Access control product exploits will be included as well, thanks for the link.

Vivotek RTSP authentication bypass

Bosch DVR 600 series root shell access exploit

This is excellent - add my vote to expanding this to include other security products.

This has the potential to be a good resource for anyone (like me) wanting to promote network security services for security systems.

Would you consider adding some indication on what the manufacturer's response history is like when confronted with a vulnerability? If I'm recommending a product I'm not concerned with the fact that there was a historic problem, I'm concerned about how the manufacturer responded to the problem (and would likely respond to a future vulnerability).

Thanks for taking this initiative!

John -

The response history suggestion is a good one, I will try to add that in when we have enough data to do so.

Siemens branded IP cameras? I would guess that's probably an OEM...?

Added Geutebrück - Authentication bypass vulnerability to the list.

Brian,

Another Web authentication bypass vulnerability for a very common DVR was found, this DVR is OEM by many vendors and could be found under many names

Currently Shodan shows more than 23000 devices online.

Thanks, I filed it as "Unknown DVR OEM" unless you know the actual manufacturer and/or most common brands affected?

Added Dahua Backdoor to this list, which is current, and also an entry for AVer DVR EH6108H+ from September 2016 that lists hard-coded accounts and an authentication bypass exploit.

This report has been updated with some new entries for March 2017:

  • March 2017 - Hikvision(4) - Backdoor allows unauthorized access to admin interface
  • March 2017 - Axis(2) - Multiple vulnerabilities related to CSRF attacks
  • March 2017 - Ubiquiti - Command injection vulnerability

I have a better idea of the vulnerabilities of each model of surveillance cameras.

UPDATE: Added latest vulnerabilities linked to Axis (ONVIF support software toolkit) and Dahua, both being buffer-overflow related.

UPDATE - added a buffer-overflow vulnerability found in NeoCoolCam iDoorbell units. A whitepaper describing the vulnerability shows a proof of concept exploit as well.

How Cyber Aware are you really?

Cyber Security is my primary role and function for large organization I work for, Regulatory Compliance is the name of the game these days. With a very large Global Enterprise and tens of thousands of connected devices I spend the first part of my daily routine reading what is going on in the "dark world" to stay on-top of stuff before I am told by EIS to shut it down until its fixed.

Part of the challenge in this industry is the manufacturers are not as Security Aware as they claim to be, the technologies are way behind traditional IT and lack the ability to use standard scanning and testing tools to help keep things in check. Case in point is Devils Ivy, how many of your Camera and VMS Partners have reached out to you to share their potential risk and their patching strategy?. Its usually the other way around where I am calling them giving them the ICS-Cert to investigate and respond.

Now days the IT/Security Requirements trump (pardon the pun) User Requirements, times have changed. How educated are you in knowing what you sell to end users and how it puts their organization at great risk? This is just not about some simple anti-virus app you load, you must select the right products for your Enterprise.

What do you know about the following and how to you manage it in your world?

  • Using IPv6 Complaint Products
  • 802.1X (Certificate Management)
  • OS/Firmware Patch Management
  • Drift Management
  • Baseline Configuration Management
  • Asset and Change Control Management
  • Vendor Access to connected devices with non-whitelisted computers (that is scary)

Hope everyone is following ICS-Cert to keep up with what is going on and not waiting for manufacturers to share with you what they want. https://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/advisories

In closing, how many of you still have Windows XP OS systems out there, its EOL and no longer supported so you cannot get updates if you wanted to. Yes Microsoft made an exception for "Wanna Cry SMB" but that is only because it was so wide spread and there are so many folks that failed to get off of XP. What do you do in 2020 when those systems you use that have Windows 7 is EOL and not patched any more, that is only a few years away and many manufactures are still shipping products TODAY that use a OS that will be obsolete January 2020.

Might be time to start a new thread on Cyber Security Awareness and what the industry is doing, some folks do it very well and lead the pack and other just don't think anything about it.

Food for thought to chew on!

Thanks for stating that so clearly. Ideally I'd like each security manufacturer to have a cyber security policy which stated the following:

1/ point person at the manufacturer to answer vulnerability requests

2/ company commitment on vulnerability response (disclosure, updates)

3/ "opt-in" e-mail list for clients to be notified of a cyber vulnerability

4/ commitment to cyber best practices (I know, hard to enforce)

Does anyone know of a manufacturer who has done ANY of this? Any additions to this list?

These manufactures do it very good, reach out them respectively and ask for their Hardening Guides and IT Security Whitepapers. They all have very public sites to share their Cyber Awareness, this is just a sample of what some manufacturers are doing. IMO Genetec sets the bar for the industry, they do "Security of Security"

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