Ranking IP Camera Low Light Performance

Author: Ethan Ace, Published on Jan 20, 2014

This first ever program rates and ranks IP camera low light performance, introducing LL-TVL counts, enabling accurate and quantified comparisons.

This has been impossible to do historically, as minimum illumination specifications are untrustworthy, with each vendor rates themselves with whatever incomparable technique they choose.

IPVM solved this by testing dozens of manufacturer cameras under the same controlled conditions and process.

The IPVM Low Light Test

In a dark room (0.5 lux), we tested each camera with an ISO12233 chart, as shown below (lights on so you can see):

We ensure all cameras are set at a normalized 1/30s shutter speed (eliminating sens up tricks and ghosting/slow shutter problems).

Then we take the output image from each camera. The images will vary depending on the performance of the camera. Here's an output of charts captured from superior, average and poor cameras:

Finally, we determined resolution of each camera to the nearest 50 TVL. Those of you familiar with analog TVL measurements and our Real Resolution of MP Cameras test report will notice this is the well accepted TV line count metric traditionally for full light measurements but never applied to low light.

Cameras Tested

We included a broad mix of new, old, expensive, cheap, name brand and not cameras to determine a range of performance. Here is the alphabetical listing of models tested, 34 cameras total from 14 manufacturers:

  • ACTi D11
  • ACTi KCM5111
  • Arecont AV3116DNv1
  • Arecont AV5115DNv1
  • Arecont AV10115DNv1
  • Avigilon 1.0-H3-B2
  • Avigilon 3.0W-H3-B2
  • Axis M1114
  • Axis P3354
  • Axis Q1602
  • Axis Q1604
  • Axis Q1755
  • Bosch NBN-498
  • Bosch NBN-733
  • Bosch NBN-932
  • Bosch NDC-274-P
  • Dahua HD2100N
  • Dahua HF3101N
  • DVTel CF-4221
  • Hikvision DS-2CD7164-E
  • Hikvision DS-2CD864FWD-E
  • IQeye IQD42S
  • Mobotix D24
  • Panasonic WV-NP502
  • Panasonic WV-SP509
  • Pelco IL10
  • Pelco IXE10LW
  • Pelco IXE20DN
  • Samsung SNB-5004
  • Samsung SNB-6004
  • Sony SNC-CH240
  • Sony SNC-DH120
  • Sony SNC-VB600
  • Sony SNC-VB630

Excluded - Integrated IR and Panoramic

The two categories of cameras we excluded are (1) integrated IR cameras and (2) panoramic cameras, because they cannot be tested with the same process. We will test these in future, dedicated treatments using specialized approaches for those segments.

Ratings / Rankings

Inside, we share the full rating and rankings, including an ordered table. Here's a preview:

Benefits

Low light performance varies far more, and in far less predictable ways, than full light/day time performance. 

Using the IPVM Low Light TVL counts (LL - TVL), the community can better compare and specify cameras based on actual quantified low light performance differences.

**** ***** **** ******* ***** *** ***** ** ****** *** light ***********, *********** **-*** ******, ******** ******** *** ********** ***********.

**** *** **** ********** ** ** ************, ********* ************ ************** *** *************, **** **** ****** ***** ********** **** ******** ************ ********* **** choose.

**** ****** **** ** ******* ****** ** ************ ******* ***** the **** ********** ********** *** *******.

The **** *** ***** ****

** * **** **** (*.* ***), ** ****** **** ****** with ** ******** *****, ** ***** ***** (****** ** ** you *** ***):

** ****** *** ******* *** *** ** * ********** */*** shutter ***** (***************** ****** ***********/**** ******* ********).

**** ** **** *** ****** ***** **** **** ******. *** images **** **** ********* ** *** *********** ** *** ******. Here's ** ****** ** ****** ******** **** ********, ******* *** poor *******:

*******, ** ********** ********** ** **** ****** ** *** ******* 50 ***. ***** ** *** ******** **** ****** *** ************ *** our **** ********** ** ** ******* **** ****** **** ****** **** ** *** **** ******** ** **** ***** metric ************* *** **** ***** ************ *** ***** ******* ** low *****.

Cameras ******

** ******** * ***** *** ** ***, ***, *********, *****, name ***** *** *** ******* ** ********* * ***** ** performance. **** ** *** ************ ******* ** ****** ******, ** cameras ***** **** ** *************:

  • **** ***
  • **** *******
  • ******* **********
  • ******* **********
  • ******* ***********
  • *********.*-**-**
  • *********.**-**-**
  • **** *****
  • **** *****
  • **** *****
  • **** *****
  • **** *****
  • ***** ***-***
  • ***** ***-***
  • ***** ***-***
  • ***** ***-***-*
  • ************
  • ************
  • ***** **-****
  • ***********-*******-*
  • ***********-*********-*
  • ***********
  • **********
  • ********* **-*****
  • ********* **-*****
  • ***** ****
  • ***** *******
  • ***** *******
  • ******* ***-****
  • ******* ***-****
  • **** ***-*****
  • **** ***-*****
  • **** ***-*****
  • **** ***-*****

Excluded - ********** ** *** *********

*** *** ********** ** ******* ** ******** *** (*) ********** IR ******* *** (*) ********* *******, ******* **** ****** ** tested **** *** **** *******. ** **** **** ***** ** future, ********* ********** ***** *********** ********** *** ***** ********.

Ratings / ********

******, ** ***** *** **** ****** *** ********, ********* ** ordered *****. ****'* * *******:

********

*** ***** *********** ****** *** ****, *** ** *** **** predictable ****, **** **** *****/*** **** ***********. 

***** *** **** *** ***** *** ****** (** - ***), the ********* *** ****** ******* *** ******* ******* ***** ** actual ********** *** ***** *********** ***********.

[***************]

Key ********

**** *** *** *** ******** **** ***** ******** ** ** cameras:

  • ********* ********, **** ******* ********* **** ** *** *****, **** brighter, **** ***** ******. **** *** *** *********** ****, ** some ***** *** **** ** ****** **** ************ **** *******.
  • ** ****** *** *****, **** ******* ************ ***** ************ ** * given ************'* ****, **** *** **** ******* ** *** ***** performance *** **********.
  • *** ** *** ***** ******* (*** ***** ***-*** *** **** Q1604) **** ****** ** **** ** *******, ******* ********** ******* of ** *******' ****** *** ***** ***********.
  • *********** ***** ** *** ********** ******* ****** ***** ************ *** notable, ** ******** ** **-*** *** ** ****, ********* **************.
  • **** ******* ** ** ****** ****** ** ******* ****** ** which *** *** ************* *********. *** ** ***** **** ****** ****** (**** *** and ***** ***** ****). *******, **** ********* ****** ******* ** produce ****** **** ******* ****** ** ***** ****** *** *** camera ****, *** *** ********** ***** *** ***** *****. 

***** ***** ***********

***** ******** *** ****** *** ************ *********** ******* ** * wide ******* ** *******, ********** **** ****** (~*') *** ***** ***** (~*.* ***) **** kept ********** ******** ********. *******, ***** *** *** ******* ***** noting:

  • *** **** ***** ** **** ****** ** *** ****** **** most ******** ** **** ***** ************ ***** **, **** *** white ******* ******* *** ***. ** * ******, **** ***** is ********* **** ** *** ****** **** ******** ******* * less ********** ********** ***** ******* ** *****.
  • *** ******** ***** **** ******* **** ****** ** ******, ***** no *** *********** **** ********. **** ******* ** ******* ********** in ***** **********, *** ** ********* ****** ** *** *********.

New ********** **. ***

*** ***** *** *** ** *** **** ******* *********** **** TVL **** ******** *** *** ********** ** *********** ******* ******* generation ******* *** ***** ***** ************.

**** ****** **** ***** ** ***, ** **** ** *** 720p **** ***** **. ******** ********** *****.

*** *********** ********** ** ***** ****** **** *** ** *** generation *** **** *******, ~*** *** ******** **** ****** **** the ***** ** *****.

Manufacturer ****** ***********

*********** **** ****** ****** ****** * ****** ************'* ****. **** comparison ***** *** ********** ******* *** **** *****, * ***** only 720p *****, *** *** *** ***** **** *****. *** ***** produces **** ******** ****** **** * *** **** **** ** TVL.

Resolution ***********

**** *** *** *********** ****** **** ***** *********** ** **** test. *******, ** * ******** ************'* ****, ** ************ ** and ***** *********** ** ****** *** *****. *** *******, *** SD *********** **** ***** ******** *** ***, ***** *** **** counterpart, *** ***** ******* ***.

******* ** *****, *** ***-*** ******* ********* **** (***** *** cameras ** **** ****, ********), ** *** *** **. *** for *** ***-*** *** *** ** *** ***-***. 

** ** *** ** ********** ******* *** ****** ****, *** **** ***-**** ****** ************ *** ***** ***********, **** lower ***** *** ******** ******.

*******, *** ********** ***** ***** ******* *, *, *** **** models **** ** ****, **** **** *** *** ****** ********* any ****** *****:

Slow ******* ********

** * ****** ** *****, ******* ********* ****** *******, ******* *******. ***** ****** ****** ** **** ****** ************ or **** ********** ***********, ** ****** ****** **** *** *****.

*** ***** ******* ********* ** ***** ********, ********* *** ***. Standardized ** **.***, *** ****** ** ****** ** ********* *** chart ** ***.

Master *******

**** ***** ***** *** ** ******* ** *** ****, ****** by *** **** ******* ** ******, ***** **** ********** *** firmware ******* ****.

Alphabetical *********

*******, **** ***** ****** ***** *** ******* ** ************ ***** for *********.

Individual *** *********** ******

** **** ******** ** ***** ** ***** ****** ** ************ ***** ****** the ISO12233 *****, ***** ** ******* ** *** ****** *** ***********. For **** ***********, ** **** **** ********* .*** **** ********** *** ** ***** ******.

****

*******

********

**** * ******

**** * & * ******

*****

*****

*****

*********

*****

*******

*********

*****

*******

****

Comments (57)

*** *******, * ***** **** **** ** ***** *** **** the **** *** ** *** **** ********** *** **** ****.

* ***** ***** ** ********** ** * ********** ** ******* that *** ******** *** **** ** "*** *****" *****.

** ******, **** ******* ******** ** ****** **'** ****** ** the **** ****, ** **** ** **** ***** *****. ** do **** ***** ** ****** ** ** *** ****** *** released *** ** **** ***** *******. **** ****** ************ ***** you ******* ** **** **** ****?

* ********** *** ***** *** **** ******, *** ** **** provide **** *********** **** ** *** ******* ***** ** ****** technology ****** *** *****. *** **** *********** **** ** ***** (sorry *** *** **** ***) ** *** ** ***** ******, and *** ******* *** ******** ***********, ********, ** ***** ****** to **** ***** *********.

***** ***** ***** ***** *** ***** *** *******/********, **** * still ** ********** * ***** ** **** ********* **** ***** such ** ******* ****** ****** **** (***** **** *** **** for ********), *** ***** ****** **** (**** ** * ******* changing **** ** *** ** ****** ***** **** * *** of ****** ***** **** ** *** *****), ***** ********* ***********, etc.

* **** **** **** ****'* ****** ** ** **** ******* - ** *** **** ****'* **** *************, ** ******** **** on *** ******. ** *** ** **** **** ******* **** manufacturers, ** ******** ******* ** ********* ** *** **** *** top *** ***** *** ***********.

** ******, ** ** *** * ***** ****** ********* *** cameras **** ***** ***** ** *** ********* *-) *** *** Light, *** ** *** **** *******. *** ****/****** ***** *** Zoom *** ** *** **/** ******.

**'* ****'* ******* ** **** ** ** *** ************* **** honest, *** * ** **** *** ******** *********** *** *********** (and ************* **********), ** * ***** *** *** ***** * great *** ** **** *****.

"**** * ***** ** ********** ****** ** **** ************* ***** **** ** ******* ****** ****** **** (***** **** has **** *** ********),*** ***** ****** ****(**** ** * ******* ******** **** ** *** ** ****** field **** * *** ** ****** ***** **** ** *** sides)"

******* *** ***** ********, ** *** **** **********.

* ** *** ***** **** ** **** **** *** **** hijacked *** ******** ** **** * ******* *** *** ******** you **** ** ****.

** ***** ******* ****, *** *** ****, ** *** ***** to **** **** ******* *** *** **** **** ****** ** we *** ******* *** ******** ***** ******* *** ***** ******.

*** ** ********* ** "****** ****", *** ***** *** **** it **** ***. ***** ***** ** ** ******, *** * did.

**** ** *** *************. ** *** ***** *** ******* *** wrong *** **** ****** ******** ** ******** ****** (**** *** firmware), **** **** ** **** * ******* ****.

** *** *** ****** ***** **** ******** ****** **** *** included,******* ** ********. *** ****** *** **** ** **** ********* **** **** dominate *** ********, ******** *** ********** ********* **** ****** ******** specifying ** ***** *********.

***** ***** ***, "**** ****** ************ ***** *** ******* ** test **** ****?" ******* ** ********** ** ****, *** ******** a ******* ******** ** **** *** ***** *********** **** ** see *** *** **** ** *** **, **** ****** **** is * *** ***** ********.

** *********** ***'* **** ****, **** *** ***** *** **********. Trust **, **** ****.

*** ** * **** **** **********, ** **** **** ***** cameras, ** ** ******* ** ** ** ******* *****. ******** up ******** **** ************ ********** ** *** * *** ** accelerate *** *******.

***** *** ***** ** **** ******, **'** **** ***** *** going ** ** ********* *** ********. ***** **** ** *** comments *** **'** ** ***** ** ******* ****.

****, *** ******,

"** ****** *** ******* *** *** ** * ********** */*** shutter ***** (***************** *****************/**** ******* ********)."

* ***** ** ********** ** ****** **** ******* ** *** same ******* *** **** ****** ******* ** *** *****, ********* a ****** "******". ******* **** *** *** * ******* *** listed ** *** *******.

******!

******, ** **** ******** * **** ** **** ******* *** moving ******* ****:****** **** ******* / ******** ******.

**** ****** *******! ******. ****** ** * ******* ******* **** array ***** **** ** ****.

******. ** *** *********** **. *** *** ***** ******* *** the ******* ********, ****** ******* ** *** ******* **** ***** were ******* *********** ****** ****** ****** **** ******* ************ ******* clearly *** *** *******.

** ** *******

* ***** ***** ******* **** *** **** *** ***** ( specify ** ************ ) *** **** ** ****

******** ** *** ***** ***** ** ***** ******* **** ***** presume ***** ****** ******** **** *** ********.

*******, ** ***** ** *********** ** **** *** ******* ************ / *** ***** ** * ****** **** ** *** **-*** results. *****/*****, ****** *** ****.

**** ***, ** *** *** *** '***' ******* ************* *** and *** ******** ******* *** ****** **** ****** ** *** manufacturer ****.

******** ** ******* *** ****** ( ****** ** ************ ) you **** **** ***** *****

** ***** ** **** ** ***** ** ***** **********

************** ** ****** ********** ******* ** ****** *** ******* ***** the **** **********. *** *******, ** **********, *** *** '****** to ******' ******* **** ************ ******* ***** ***.

** *** ******** ** ***** ** ************ *** ********* ** **** *** ** ***** ***** ** ****** *** compare **** *** ****** ****** ** **** ** ******** ** an *********** ****.

**** *********** ******.

********* * ******* ** ******: ** ***** ** ***** **** the ****** *** *** **** *****? ** *** ****** ** shows ** *** *** *** *** ***** ******** ******** *** LL-TVL. ***** ** ******* ** **** * **** *************?

****** *** ******** **** ***, *******. *** ****** **** **** updated. ** *** * **** ** ** ****.

***** *******, *** **** *** ** *** **** ****** **** as *****, ********* & **** **** ****** *** *** *******.

*****'** ***** ** *** **** *** ******, ****** *** ****** would ***** **** ** ** ****.

**** * ****** ****. *** *** ***** ********** ******** ********** and ****** ** ****** ** ******** **** ********** *****. ***** results *** ***** **** ** *** *** ******* **** ******* square *****.

** ** * *****?

***** *******. ***** **** ** ***** ** **** ***** ******* for *** **** ****!

** ***** ** ****** ** *** * ****** *** ****** pricing *** ***** ******* *** ***** **** ******. *** ***** range ** *** ******* ** *** **** ******* ** ** from **** **** $*** ** * ****** ** ******** *******. Most ** ** ****'* ******** **** *** ** *** ********* models ****** *** ** ***** ** **** ** *** *** relationship ******* ***** *** ***********.

****, ****'* * **** ****. **'** *** ****** / ********* street ***** ** **** ******* * ***** ** ***** ***********.

****, ******* *** **** ***** ** *** ****** ******.

***** ** *** ****** *** ** *********** ****!

*** ** **** **** ***** **** *’* ** ********** *** we ***’* *** **** ******* (*** *’* *** ****** ******* speaking).

* ***** **** **** *** **** ************ **** ** *** reply ** ****** *******. ** * **** ****** ******* ** was *** * ******* ********* ** *** **** *** ** attempt ** ****** *** ********, ** **** ******* *** **** it’s *********** **** * ***-**** ****** ** **** ** * low-light ****, ***** * ******* ***** **. *** **** *** (I *** ** **** ** *** *********) ** ******* *** meant *** *****/***-***** ************. **** ** **** ********* * **** car ** * ********* ** * **** *****. *** **** thing *** *** *** ** ** ** **** *** **** the ********* **** ***.

****** **** **** ***** *** *** **** *******, ***** ** actually * **** **** ********. ** *** *** *******/***** **** vendors *** ****** ****, * ***** ****** ***** *** *********** of * ****** *** *** ***** ** ******* ***** *** one *** *** *** *** ****** ***. *** *********** ** the ****** **** **** ******* ** *** ****** ****. *** sensor *********** ******* ** ******** ******* **** *** ******* ***** on *** ***** *** ****** *** *** ***. ** **** you *** *** * ****** *** ***** *** * ****** that ******** ********** ****. ** ** ******** *** * ****** at * ******* ****** ****** *********** *** * **** **** for **** ****** ****** *** *********** ** **** ****** *** each ****** ** ********. **’* **** **** **** ** **** a ****** **** ******** ********** ****.

***** *** ****, ** ***** ** **** ** **** * gray ***** ** *** **** ****** ** **** ** * person’s **** ** *** *****/***** *** *** ***’* **** *** the ***** ********** ** *** ****** ** *** ** *******. This ***** ****** ** **** **** *********** ** ***** ******* and *** *********** ** **** ******* ** **** *****. ** general ** ***** ** **** ** **** ** ****** ************ of **** **** *** ******* ***** ** *** ******.

**** ** *** **** ****!!

*****, *** ******* **** ****** ******** ** **** (*) ** did *** ****** *****'* ******** ******** *** (*) ** ** promoting *** *** ********.

** *** *** ** *** *******, ** *** *** ************ majority ** ******* ** **** ********* *** **** ********* ****. The ******* **** ** *** **** *** ~$*** ** ** to *** *** **** '***** *** *****' ******, **'* **** that ** ***, ****** *** ***, ** **** ***** ******, has **** ***** ** ** **** **** ******.

* ** ****** ** ***** ************* ******** *********** *** ******* free ********* ** **** *** ***** *******.

** *** *** ******** *****, ** **** **** ***** *****/***** as **** ********. *** *** **** **** ** *** ********** shootouts. **** **** **** ****:

**** **** *** ***** ** ********** ******** ********* ******** ***************.

**, * ***** **** ** * **** ****! ******!

*** ***** *** *** ** *** ** **** ******* ********. Especially * **** *** ****** *** ****** ** *** ***. As * **********/*** **** **** ** **** ***********.

* ****** *** **** ******* ******, **** *** **** * test ** *** **** ****** ***** ****** *** ******? *** many ********* ******* *** ****** ** *** ****? ** *** know ***** *** *** **** ** *** *** ***** *********?

** **** ** ****** ** ** **** **** **** *** example *** **** *******/******** **** *** ***, *****? * ***** like ** **** **** * ****** ****** ** *** **** above ** **** (*** ******** **** ** **** ******* **** default **** *******, ** **** * *************). *** * ********** that ***** **** **** **** ****.

***** **** ** ******** ***** ** *** ***** ***-******* *** no * **** **** *** ** ** ** ** *** efficient ***?

*********** ***** ***. ** **** ******* *** *********** **** *** imager **** ** **** ****** ** ****** *** ******* ********.

** ****,

**** ****. ***** ** ** ******** ** *** ** ****** at *** ***** ******* *** *** **** ***** ** * few ************* *** *** ****** ****** ** **** ***** **** Lightfinder *** ********* ********** ** **** * ***. **** *** be ** ********** ********* *** ** ***** *** **** ***/***** external *******.

** ***** **** ** *********** ** ******* *** ********* ** the ******* ** ***/***** ** ****** ** ******* ********** ****** night **********.

******

** **** * ************ ** ****** ***** ************ ******** *** ***** ******* ***** * ******* ** ************ and ******.

**'** **** ***** ***** **** ** *** **** *** ******* Fixed ***** ** * *** ** *** *** ***** ******** require ****** ********** **** *** *** ******* ***'* ***** ****. It ***** ** **** ** *** *** ***** ***** ***** as ****'* **** ** *** *********. ** ***** **** ** nice ** *** **** **** ** *** *** **** *** Arecont ** ******* *******. **'** **** ****** ********* **** *** night ****** ** *** ******* **** *** **** ***** **** their ****** ********* ***********. ** *** * ***** *** ** the **** *****-** *** *** ******* ***-**** **** ********* *** do ** ******* *** ** ****** **** *****. ** ****** the ******* **** ****** **** *** **** ******* *** **** it ***, ****** ***** *** * *** ** ********.

* ***** ** ********** ** ****** **** ****-**-**** ******* *** the ***- *** ***-****** ******* **** *******, ********, *** ******* (and ****** **** *** ***** * ******* *****-****** '*********'), ***. Deegan - ** **** *** ******* ******** ******* **** *** Arecont ****** ** ***** *****. **** ** *** ******* ***** have **** ************ - ***'* **** ******** *** ****** - and *** ******** **** **** ****, **** **** ****** ** stay ** ***** ****.

*** ****** *** ***** **** *** ********* **** **********? * have **** ****, *** ** ***** ** ** ******** ** those ********** ************. ***, * ** ******** **** **** **, plus **** **** **** ***** **** **** **** ***. * have **** ********* ****** ************ *** *** ***** *** ** assist. ** *** **** **** ********** *******, ********** ** ******* in *** ** **** ***** **********, **** *** **** **** experience ** ******** ** ***** ******* **** ** *** ***** list?

*****, *** ************** ** **********. *** ******** **** ********** *******, **** *** ********* **** *** ************ ** ******* ********, their ***** *********** ******** ****** *** **** (**** *** ****) and ******* ****.

*** ****, * ***** ***** ** ***** ********** ** ******* (which ** * ******** ********). *** ***** **** **** ************ close ** *** ****** *** **** ****** **** ****** *** away*** ** **** ** ** * ***** ***** ************ ***** than *** *** *** *****, *** ** ******* ***** ****.

**'** ******* *** ****** ** ******* *** ************'* ********* *** levels.

*****, ******. ** ********, ***** ** * **** **** *********** between ************ *** **** *** ****** ***********.

*** **** ***** ** ********* ** *** ******* **********. **** their **** *****, **** ****:

"***** (***-******): *.* *** @ **.*

***** (******): *.** *** @ **.*

***/*****: * ***, ** *********"

** ** *** *** ***** ***, **'* ********** ******* *** camera **** ** **** ***** *** ***** ****. ** ** use *** ***/*********, ** ** ********* ******* * *** ******* *** **** sensitivity ** ** *************** **'* ****** ******** ** ***** *******. ** ******, **** is ******* ***** **** ** *** ** ********** ** ****** ... *** ****'* ******* *** ***.

**** ** * ****** **** **** ****, *** *'* ******** about **** ** *** *******. * ***** **** **** ** them, ** ****** ** ***. *******, ** ** *** ********* are *** *** (* *** ******** *** *** *****) :

*** ********:
**** ******* ******* *******!
**** ***** ******* *******!
**** ***-***** **** ******** **********
******* (****) ****** *******

*** ******:
***** **** * ***** ****** ******* * ***, ****** **** one ** *** ****. ***** ** ***.

** * ******* ********* ** *** ****** ********?

** ****, ***'* ******* *** *** ******** **** *****: ** most ** ** ******** (* **** ***** ******* * ********* use, *** *** ****** **** **** ********), ***** ******* ** listed *** ****** **** ** ***. *******, ** *** *** I'm ******* ** ***, ****'** *********. **'* **% ****** **'* due ** ********, **********, *** ***** ********. *** ******* *'* at *** * *****'* ********** ** ***, *** * *** tell **'* ****** ****** *** *** ********, ** ** ***** the ***** ***** ***.

*** ******* *** *** ******** ****** ** *** ****. ** other ******** **** ****** ******** *** **** ** * ***** 400. **** ***** **** ******* ******, *** *** ****** ** confidently *** ** *** ****** **** ***.

** * ****, *** ***** ***** ** ***** ***** ******* together ** *** *** ***** ** ******* ***. * ***** some ****** *** *** ****** ******** ***********. ** **** ***** for *********** **** ** ***.

****, ******. *** ** ****** ** *****'* *****, ****'* *** of *** ******* ** ******** *** ****** / *** *****, so ****** *** *** *** ***** *** **********.

*** ***** * ******* *** **** **** ******* **** ** be ******** *** **** **** ********* *****, *.*., ***'* **** as **** *****. **** ****** **** ******** ****** **** ** they ***'* **** *******. * ***'* ***** **** ****** ****** *** **** ** *** ****** *** **** ***** own ******.

*****, *** ******* * ****** **** ** ** * **** size (**") ******* **** * *** *** ***** ******* *** is ********** **** * ****** ***** ******** ********, **********, *****, and *****. * ***'* **** ** *** *** ***** ********** monitors, *** ** ** ***** **** ** **** *** ****** should **.

****** ***** *** * **** ****** ****!

** ***** **** *** ***** **** *** * ***** ********* compared ** ******* ** *** ***** ********. **** *** ****** pictures ** ***** ** ** **** *** ** **.

***** *** ****** ******* * *** ** *** *** ******** are ****?

**********: ** ***'* *** *****, *** ** *** ******* ** the ***** *************.

** ******, * ****** ** **** *** ***** *** *****, since * ****** ** ****** ********* **, *** * ***** by *** *** *** ******. ** * ********* *****, ** did *** ************ ** ***. **** **** ******* ** *** of **, ** ******** ********. ******* ***** *** **** ****** on *** *******, *** *******,*** ***** ***** ** ***** ***** ******* ******** ** *** was ***** ** ******* ***. ** *** ***, * ** not *** * ***** * *****.

****** *** *** ****** ******.

*****, *'* ******* ** *** ********* ***** ************* *** ** is *********

**** *********** **** *** & ***** (**) ********:*.* ** (*****), 0.06 ** (*/*) ** **.*

***** ** ********* *****'* **** ***** ****?

******

*****, *** *** ****** **** *** ************ ***'* **** ***** due ** *********'* ******* ************ **************, ** ********* ****?

******* ************ *****,** **'** ******* ***, *** ** ******* ** ****** *********** *** *** **** very ***** ********** ******** **** *******. **'** ***** ** ** more ********* ******* **** **** **** ** ******* ************ ****** up.

* ** *** ********** *** *** ******** ** **** **** size ***** **** **** **** ?

** *****,

**** *'* ****** ***** ****** ** * ******* *********** ******* Japanees *** ******* ********. ** ***** ****** *** ** *** used *-**** ***/** *** ******* *****. ** ** ********* ** know ***** ***** *** ***** ***** **********. ******

*****, *** ******* ***********, ** **'** **** **** *** **** again, ** **** ******* ************ ***** (*********'* ** **** ** others) *** ********. **** **** ** ********** ** ******* ***** (we **** ** */***), ** *** ***** ****** ********, *** there ** ** ******** ** ** **** ******* ************ *********.**** ******* ************ **** * ****** *****? **** ** **** there ** **** ********** ****** ** **** ***** *****, **** though *** ***** ** *******? ** *** *********.

****** ***, *** ******* ************ **** ** *******, *** *** SP509 ** **** ** *** *****, ** **'** **** ****, and ** *********** ** ** ******* ***** ** *******.

** *****, *** *** **** *** ************* ******* ******* * value, ************, ***, *** ***** ******** **** *** ****? * agree **** *** **** *** ***** ***** ******* ********* ** it ** **** ** ******* **** ***** *** ***. ** there *** ** ************* ******** **** ******* ********** ****** **** would ** **** *** ******** ****** **** *************.

****, **** **** *** *-**** ***** **** *** *** *****? Am * ******* ** ******** **** *** .* *** *** measured ** *** *****?

******, *** ****** *** *** *** ************'* ******** **** ** the ************'* *********** **** **** ***** ********. **** ***** **** we *** ***** *** **** ****** / '********' **** ** the ********** ****** ************.

*** *** ******* *** **** ** *** *****.

**** *-**** *** ****? ***** **** *** **** ****? ** not, **** ***** **** *** *******.

*******

***** *******!

**** *** ** *** **** *** ****** *** ** **** one. ***** ** ********** **** *********** ** ** ********* **** those ******!

******* *** ******* ****** *** **** ************. *'* *** ***** to ****** ******* ******** *** *'*** **** ******'* **** **** kind ** **** ****** *****, *****, *****. *** ***** **** true *** ****, *** ** ******* *********** ** ******* **** horse *** **** *** **** * **** ***.

***** **** * ****-*** ** *** **** ***-*** ******** ******** ****** ***-***** ***********. *** ***** ****** **** **** ******** ********** **** *** of * ************ *******. *** ***** ******* ** **** *** way *** *** **** ****, ** *** ***ignoring *** ******** ***** ***********, which in normal illumination is not nearly as important as in low light settings.

****'* * ***-*** **** ********* **** *** *****: **** *** can't **** ******* *** ***** ****** ****** ** *** **** side, *** *** *** ***** '******' ********** ** *** **** line ** *** *****, **** *** ***** ** *** ***** used *********. **'* **** ***** ** *** ***** ***** **.

**** * **** ** **** ******* ***-**** *****, * ***'* make *** *** ******* *** ***?

*** **** ****** *** **** ** *** *** ***** ** all ******! ***** ************* ** *********** ****, *** *********** ** ********** ***** *** ******* *** ** *** ***** *** *** best. **** *** **** ******* :)

* ** **** ******** **** ****** ****

**** *** * *** ****** *** **** **** **** *******

***, ******. ****'* **** ******** ***** *** ******** ***** *** I *** **** ***** ***** *** ******* ****.

*** ******, ****'* *** ****** ** ** ********* **:

**'** **** * **** ** *** ******** *** *** **** other ******* / ************ ** *** ***.

**** *** *** ***** ********* ******* ** *** ******?

* ***** *** ***-***** ** *** ****** *** ******** ** the ***** *******.

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