World IEC Fever Screening Standards Explained

By Charles Rollet, Published May 04, 2020, 10:04am EDT

While 'fever detection' is new to most people, the technology has been practiced for many years and has a series of international standards that we explain herein.

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In particular, the world's two top international standards groups, the IEC and ISO, have published 3 standards covering fever (i.e., febrile) screening:

  • IEC 80601-2-59:2017 Medical electrical equipment — Part 2-59: Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of screening thermographs for human febrile temperature screening
  • ISO/TR 13154:2017 Medical electrical equipment — Deployment, implementation and operational guidelines for identifying febrile humans using a screening thermograph
  • ISO 80601-2-56:2017 Medical electrical equipment — Part 2-56: Particular requirements for basic safety and essential performance of clinical thermometers for body temperature measurement

We purchased those 3 standards for 530 Swiss Francs (~$550 USD), studied them and prepared this guide to explain how they apply to fever sceening, including:

  • Focus Area: Inner Eye, Other Areas "Unreliable"
  • ISO Face Examples Show Importance of Inner Eye
  • Eyeglasses, Hair Shouldn't Obstruct Face
  • Impact of Obstructions Shown by ISO
  • Manufacturers Contradict Standards
  • 'Face Detection' AI and Temperature Algorithms
  • Minimum Lab Accuracy Level
  • Faces Must Be Parallel to Camera
  • Minimum Face Pixel Requirements
  • Secondary Measurement Required
  • Clinical Thermometer Requirements
  • Ambient Temperature Must Be Controlled, Ensure No One Is Sweating
  • Avoid Bright Lights, A/C Drafts, Other Heat/Cold Sources
  • Secondary Screening Area Requirements
  • Fever Cams For Use "Under Indoor Environmental Conditions"
  • Long List of Facilities Recommended
  • Ease-of-Extraction Emphasized
  • No Toilets Nearby
  • Backdrop Requirements: Non-Reflective, Avoid Dark Colors
  • People Should Be Screened One-at-a-Time
  • Data Should be Kept For One Month/GDPR Impact
  • Applicability / Legality

IEC/ISO Explainer

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), based in Geneva, Switzerland, is the world's top standards organization "for all electrical, electronic and related technologies" with 85 member countries, including the US, PRC (China), France, Germany, India, Japan, etc.

The International Standards Organization (ISO), also Geneva-based, publishes international standards but for a broader variety of products, and includes 164 member countries, including the nations mentioned above.

FDA Endorsed

Both organizations have published detailed standard guides for fever detecting thermal camera solutions, and the FDA has endorsed them, including in their most recent guidance stating:

[cameras are] tested and labeled consistent with the following standard: IEC 80601-2-59:2017

[the camera's] labeling references and is consistent with the guidelines in ISO/TR 13154: 2017

Thus, in this guide, we use both organizations' recommendations, as the two groups explicitly state they collaborate "closely" and recommend each other:

IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations [from IEC 80601-2-59:2017]

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization [...] IEC 80601-2-59 provides recommendations on the types of temperature screening operations and relevant performance requirements for responsible organizations to adopt for their intended operation [from ISO/TR 13154:2017]

Focus on Inner Eye, Other Areas "Unreliable"

The IEC states the inner eye is the best area for body temp readings due to it being over an important artery, stating other body areas are "unreliable":

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Facial thermography of surface areas other than the region medially adjacent to the inner canthi is unreliable, and may be complicated by perspiration, facial skin flushed from exertion, etc. The current evidence indicates that the region medially adjacent to the inner canthi is the preferred site for fever screening due to the stability of that measurement site. This is because this region is directly over the internal carotid artery.

ISO Face Examples Show Importance of Inner Eye

The importance of the inner eye area is best shown by a real-life thermal cam images from the ISO/TR 13154:2017. The figure below shows a man without a fever (afebrile) with a hit of 36.6°C on thermal camera:

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For a man with a fever, his left eye shows 37.9°C and his right 38.4°C:

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Both these thermal cam readings used a blackbody of 35°C, ISO notes.

Eyeglasses, Hair Shouldn't Obstruct Face

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The IEC also states hair, eyeglasses, and other objects should not be covering someone's face:

Instruction to the OPERATOR to ensure that the FACE is unobstructed by hair, eyeglasses, and other objects because their presence will interfere with the ability of a SCREENING THERMOGRAPH to detect a febrile condition.

Impact of Obstructions Shown by ISO

The impact of obstructions is clear. Below is an ISO thermogram of someone wearing glasses, almost totally obscuring the critical inner eye area:

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Even a hat has similar effects:

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Notably, ISO states a face mask is also an obstruction, and leads to warmer-than-usual readings due to warm breath exhalations being reflected back onto the face:

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The ISO notes it has adjusted the celsius display scale in the 3 images above to "demonstrate the thermal pattern more clearly".

Manufacturers Contradict Official Advice

However, many firms touting fever cameras do not disclose that glasses and masks severely impact accuracy, along with not disclosing the critical importance of inner eye readings.

Demo videos often show 'accurate' readings for people with glasses that totally obscure the inner eye area, e.g., from the PRC's Nuctech:

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Or this Hikvision demo:

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Or from this Dahua video that has been viewed 140,000+ times:

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However, now, Dahua is recommending a snaking or winding pattern where people queue to get their faces scanned, as shown in this video they provided to us embedded below:

Minimum Lab Accuracy Level

IEC states the minimum laboratory accuracy for a thermal camera is ±0,5°C in the 34°C to 39°C range:

The temperature LABORATORY ACCURACY of a SCREENING THERMOGRAPH, including the measurement uncertainty shall be less than or equal to an offset error of ±0,5°C over the range of at least 34°C to 39°C

Generally, this is also the accuracy touted by most fever cam manufacturers, with many (like Sunell, Dahua, FLIR, Hikvision) touting ±0,3°C and Mobotix even claiming ±0,1°C.

IPVM is still trying to verify what laboratories manufacturers are using to verify the accuracy of their accuracy specifications.

Faces Must Be Parallel to Camera

IEC states faces should be parallel to the camera:

The WORKABLE TARGET PLANE of the SCREENING THERMOGRAPH shall accommodate a FACE that is positioned 0,75 m to 2,2 m above the floor. This requirement may be met by moving the infrared camera. The plane of the lens of the infrared camera also should be parallel to the FACE and in line with the TARGET.

The ISO adds that if this is not achieved, errors of "up to 1 °C" are possible:

Unless the face and camera lens are correctly aligned, errors of up to 1 °C can be introduced. Such errors usually lower the temperature value measured.

Here is one example that the ISO considers a "properly positioned individual":

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This goes counter to manufacturers which show significantly angled faces, e.g. this Dahua video:

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Minimum Face Pixel Requirements

IEC states cameras must be parallel in order to maximize the number of pixels in the face image, which should be a minimum 240 by 180:

This [parallel] requirement is intended to ensure that there are sufficient IMAGE PIXELS in the thermogram of the FACE and TARGET to permit an accurate assessment. The minimum display of the WORKABLE TARGET PLANE shall be 320 IMAGE PIXELS by 240 IMAGE PIXELS. In NORMAL USE, the thermogram of the FACE shall fill at least 240 IMAGE PIXELS by 180 IMAGE PIXELS.

Many of the manufacturers IPVM are using 400x400 (e.g., Sunell's Panda Cam) or smaller 320x288 sensors, which means they could only comply with this when reading a single face, not 10 or more in a row or the 40+ shown in Sunell's marketing below:

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If a face on camera needs to be 240 pixels wide and a real face is about six inches wide, effectively a 400-pixel camera should have a field of view no wider than 10 inches. However, Sunell is only getting around 50 pixels per face at best, a fifth of the IEC recommendation.

The practical issue is that with fewer pixels on target it is harder to get precise readings since the readings of adjacent hotter and colder parts of a face will blend in, reducing accuracy.

No Mention of 'Face Detection' AI And Temperature Adjusting Algorithms

The ISO/IEC standards make no mention of such AI or of anything else helping overcome these obstructions. This sets up an issue where manufacturers may argue these 2017 standards are out of date.

Some manufacturers have also touted "compensation algorithms" they claim automatically adjust for the (well-known) difference between face skin temperature and actual body temperature. However, the ISO recommends that this "small difference" between inner eye temp and body temp be accounted for by adjusting the "threshold temperature", i.e. the specific temperature at which the system alarms:

The screening thermograph measures the skin temperature of the region medially adjacent to the inner canthus and not a body core temperature; there is a small difference in temperature between these two sites. This difference should be accounted for in the selection of the threshold temperature.

We are in the middle of testing multiple systems using on-the-move and low pixel density and plan to update our reporting here as soon as possible.

Secondary Measurement Required, Clinical Thermometer Requirements

A high temp reading cannot be automatically considered a fever, and must be confirmed with a clinical thermometer, the IEC says:

All individuals suspected of being febrile with SCREENING THERMOGRAPHS should be confirmed with a secondary measurement using a clinical thermometer.

The clinical thermometer should conform to a separate standard, ISO 80601-2-56.

This standard includes the now-ubiquitous infrared thermometers held over the forehead; however, such devices must be tested in both a lab and on a "sufficiently large group of human subjects", unlike 'regular' body thermometers (e.g. ones held in the mouth) which require only lab testing.

The ISO recommends laboratory accuracy of ±0,3°C for clinical thermometers.

Fever Cams For Use "Under Indoor Environmental Conditions"

The ISO/TR 13154:2017 and IEC 80601-2-59:2017 standards specifically state that fever screening is deployed under indoor conditions:

[IEC] SCREENING THERMOGRAPHS have been used at ports-of-entry, ports-of exit and the entrances to buildings under indoor environmental conditions with the intention of separating febrile from afebrile individuals to help prevent the spread of communicable diseases

[ISO] this document provides general guidelines for the deployment, implementation and operation of a screening thermograph intended to be used for non-invasive febrile temperature screening of individuals under indoor environmental conditions to prevent the spread of infection.

However, this has not stopped some firms, like the PRC's Rokid, from touting dubious outdoor fever detection solutions:

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Avoid Bright Lights, A/C Drafts, Other Heat/Cold Sources

The IEC says the type of lighting matters, as it could affect accuracy. Specifically, bright lights such as incandescent or halogen should be avoided:

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The RESPONSIBLE ORGANIZATION needs to be aware of the type of lighting used at the screening area. Lighting such as incandescent, halogen, quartz tungsten halogen and other type of lamps that produce significant interference (heat) should be avoided. The area chosen for screening should have a non-reflective background and minimal reflected infrared radiation from the surroundings.

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IEC recommends A/C drafts be diffused to ensure they are not blowing onto people and cooling them:

Drafts from sources such as air conditioning ducts can cause forced cooling or heating of the FACE and should be baffled or diffused to prevent airflow from blowing directly onto the PATIENT.

The ISO adds that "sun-facing windows, radiant heaters, or sources of cold (cold windows or outside walls" can also "interfere" with accurate readings and must be avoided as well.

By contrast, below is an image from a May 2, 2020, Canadian article showing a Hikvision system monitoring the glass door entrance to a liquor store:

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Long List of Facilities Recommended

The ISO recommends a wide variety of facilities implement fever screenings during a "severe pandemic":

  • entrances to hospitals and clinics, including emergency rooms;
  • entrances to critical infrastructure facilities;
  • entrances to workplaces;
  • entrances to schools;
  • entrances to government buildings, including police and fire stations;
  • entrances to other communal locations;
  • public transportation.

This is the main reason "fever cameras" have gone from a niche product to a Booming Multi-Billion Dollar Market.

Ambient Temperature Must Be Controlled, Ensure No One Is Sweating

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Controlling ambient temperature is important, as overly hot/cold people will not give accurate results, particularly if they are sweating, ISO says:

individuals being screened should not be too cold or too hot and especially not sweating.

The ISO states that ideally, the temperature should be 20°C to 24°C (68°F and 75°F) and humidity from 10% to 50%:

The temperatures measured by a screening thermograph can be influenced when the individual being screened is sweating. Sweating thresholds can vary according to a person’s fitness level, environment of residence, length of adaptation and the relative humidity. When humidity is controlled, these effects are minimized. To produce consistent and reliable results of the temperature screening process, it is imperative that the screening thermograph be situated in a reserved stable indoor environment with a temperature range of 20 °C to 24 °C and relative humidity range from 10 % to 50 %. [emphasis added]

The ISO states one way to achieve such conditions would a be a special walk-through booth:

These conditions can best be achieved by creating a local, controlled environment. EXAMPLE A walk-through booth.

Secondary Screening Area Requirements

In order to prevent "cross-contamination" (febrile individuals in the line infecting others), the ISO recommends that a "secondary screening area" be set up "removed from the general traffic flow" for people who are being confirmed for fever:

The secondary screening area should be at a tangent to the screening thermograph area, but removed from the general traffic flow. Screening near the entrance of the facility prevents comingling.

The secondary screening area should be properly equipped with "masks, wipes, disinfectants".

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They should also include a method for safely and privately sending febrile individuals to quarantine or the relevant health department:

The secondary screening area is a care area that should equipped with a clinical thermometer and accessories that comply with ISO 80601-2-56 and should be staffed by qualified medical personnel. The secondary screening area should be equipped with sanitation supplies, e.g. masks, wipes, disinfectants. To prevent cross-contamination, the secondary screening area should be positioned to allow patient removal from the facility or to quarantine with reasonable privacy and with minimum exposure to others (maintaining crosscontamination prevention).

Ease-of-Extraction Emphasized

It's important to make sure the screening area allows maximum "ease of extraction", i.e. people can be removed without creating bottlenecks in the flow of people passing through:

The workflow has to be designed in a manner that allows ease of extraction of suspected febrile individuals

No Toilets Nearby

The ISO says bathrooms should not be near screening areas.

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They explain this is to reduce infection risk and stop people with fevers from washing their faces to fool the system:

Toilets should not be proximal to the screening thermograph area. This is to both inhibit potential cross-infection and to prevent facial washing (alteration of the thermal profile) immediately prior to entering the screening thermograph area.

Cold water will temporarily cool the face allowing a person to trick the fever screening that they do not have a fever:

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Backdrop Requirements: Non-Reflective, Avoid Dark Colors

The ISO also has recommendations for the backdrop behind the person being screened, chiefly that it not be dark and that it's not reflective:

The backdrop behind the individual being screened and, where utilized, side screens should be — thermally uniform, — non-reflective in the IR spectrum, and — not dark in colour in the visible spectrum (closer to white than black).

People Should Be Screened One-at-a-Time

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To get the best possible shot of someone's inner eye, ISO recommends a single file line, and that people should "stop and pause":

The individuals to be screened are channelled into single file and caused to stop or pause so that the screening thermograph can capture the region medially adjacent to the inner canthi temperature distribution one individual at a time. Measuring individuals one at a time facilitates the capture of a reliable thermogram and allows the determination of potentially febrile individuals requiring secondary screening.

However, ISO does state that at high-volume situations, the system can operate in "near real time".

To minimize disruption in high volume situations, the response time and throughput of the screening thermograph should be capable of operating in near real time for rapid and effective screening. This can necessitate that the screening thermograph be highly automated.

But in low-volume scenarios, it's still best to ask people to stand still:

when the response time and throughput is not as demanding, the temperature screening operation can require the individual to stand still at a set location in front of the camera of the screening thermograph while the temperature is being screened

Again, firms like Sunell and its Panda Cam openly flout this requirement, advertising a simultaneous screening of 20 or more people:

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Data Should be Kept For One Month/GDPR Concerns

ISO recommends all the data pertaining to thermal temperature checks be kept for one month:

The responsible organization should retain this information for at least one month (normal maximum incubation time for known infectious diseases). The responsible organization should be prepared to maintain the data for longer periods when deemed necessary by the public health authorities and other organizations ensuring protection of public safety.

Note: technically, the GDPR does not apply to thermal camera readings, as it only deals with the "processing of personal data" i.e. data that can identify a specific person - which thermal readings cannot. However, if the end user records a person's name and/or face and marks her as febrile, then that becomes subject to GDPR as health information is considered a "special category" of personal data. (Article 9). This means such data should be handled very carefully, i.e. kept secure and only shared with health authorities. As ISO notes:

The collected data are electronic health information and thus subject to privacy and security laws in many jurisdictions. As such, access to the collected data should be restricted and access records and all metadata should be maintained according to local law.

Applicability / Legality

While the recognition of IEC / ISO standards is broad and global, they are not generally legally binding, i.e., one does not risk going to jail for violating. However, they are often cited, recommended, or called out by government agencies, e.g., the US FDA here. As such, going against these standards carries some risk that organizations should consider. Also, if one does go against them and coronavirus infections subsequently are traced to that facility, it could increase legal risk (i.e., the organization did not follow the IEC / ISO standard). On the other hand, in the middle of a pandemic, the probability increases that standards will be ignored, at least short term.

Vote / Poll

44 reports cite this report:

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Comments (32)

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This is a great article and very useful in this emerging field. While reading this I was simultaneously on a conference call where it was announced what one customer's standards will be for fever screening:

ICI cameras used at entrance points - if above 97.7 degrees Fahrenheit this classifies them for additional screening due to low accuracy on this unit. From there a handheld unit is used for verification and if above 100.4 degrees Farenheit they are disallowed access.

This seems like it would be a very wide net. Since most people being screened will be coming in from outside and the weather is warming up this seems like a serious concern with accuracy.

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After the first 1,000 or so people processed, I would wager they change their approach on that, or give up on it altogether. They will be spending a lot of time dealing with false flags into secondary screening, though if the handheld unit is doing forehead temp at >100.4F, I doubt they will get many confirmations there, as people would have likely cooled down enough from standing around waiting in the long queue for secondary measurements.

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You just wiped out about $500M of pipeline that a bunch of hacks were really counting on.

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While all of these are sensible, no customer will follow them. It's going to be a lawless wasteland for the next 2-3 years.

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It's going to be a lawless wasteland for the next 2-3 years.

And this is why I'm teaching my kids to be marauders.

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While I agree these are sensible, I disagree no customers will follow them. We've taken multiple steps to ensure our sales team doesn't sell any system, unless the customer acknowledges and agrees to take a lot of these precautions (We did not mention bathrooms or lighting). Not in a fine print contract on page 300, but an up front discussion and then in writing on page 1 of the quote in clear bullet points saying "x,y,z" need to be done to get accurate readings. We also go to great lengths saying that if any of those points aren't followed to expect accuracy to plummet. I put the responsibility on the integrator to educate the customers on what is reality vs. marketing, also then following through these steps with the installation.

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In this particular current case, we should bear in mind that current evidence suggests that the vast majority of people are asymptomatic, meaning of course that they exhibit no symptoms. So detection and possible exclusion of individuals presenting with fevers could, even in a perfect world with all standards adhered too, fail to secure a property and is for the purposes of "security theater" as much is anything else.

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Well said. This is one of those solutions that makes the uninformed feel safer so they enter the building, airplane, or whatever.

Why not post just "Fever Free Zone" signs? :)

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Was watching news last night and they had Spokane Airport on - they had installed Athena (not mentioned by name but could see their logo) and were scanning all passengers for temp at the TSA screening point. This was part of a larger story on all the airlines requiring masks for everyone. Story said they were first airport to implement the testing. Laughed because the video

Looked for video - can't find it

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Looked for video - can't find it

There's this one nearby at Everett Paine - Athena

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Yep, I had been analize "update" of Athena's system in my comment.

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Thanks U6 - That's the one

I just had a customer ask about this, so I've been scouring for companies that are marketing as ISO / IEC compliant, while following the guidelines in this article

The only one I found that does the inner eye as recommended above is Sensia out of Madrid (and whom I've never heard of till about an hour ago)

At least they look like an actual purpose built product as opposed to a Thermal imaging camera trying to masquerade as a fever detection device

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Spectron IR has been stating these exact guidelines the entire time and use a highly sophisticated medical IR camera. They are stating a uniform background be required, people be scanned one at a time, removal of sunglasses, eye glasses, hats, masks over the nose, etc. They really are ahead of the other "making a profit" companies that are in this field. www.spectronir.com

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#11, no self-promotion is allowed. If your company does do that, it's fine to say it but just be direct about it (i.e., say "We", not "They").

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I've never used or set up a thermal cam. I would like a brief explanation on how a blackbody device improves accuracy. I understand it's for calibration and every marketing pic I've seen keeps it in the camera's FOV during operation. Is that necessary? Is there any physical connection between the camera and the blackbody? Are there grades (good, better, best) for these calibration devices? Should these be evaluated by IPVM? And how do I know it's accurate? Thanks.

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Is there any physical connection between the camera and the blackbody?

No physical connection between the camera and the blackbody in the 3 we are testing currently (Dahua, Seek, Sunell). And from our review of other system's documentation, that's normal. You typically set the blackbody to a specific temperature and then input that temperature in the software of the thermal camera / measurement device.

Are there grades (good, better, best) for these calibration devices?

We don't know enough about blackbodies yet to understand all the differences. Some are obvious, though, e.g., the Seek is at fixed temperature, others support varying temperature ranges (35C to 50C), etc.

And how do I know it's accurate?

One way we are and have heard others do it is to test against hand held IR thermometers 'guns'. We have a handful of them and, for the short time we have been testing so far, the blackbodies hold their temperatures at the set mark.

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John - have you considered making this article public so it can be spread on social media to educate companies buying thermal camera products under the guise of identifying temperature detection?

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#5, here is an unlocked link to this report so you or anyone with it can share publicly.

I am trying to find the right balance between providing value to members and opening things to the general public.

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Thermography (measuring specific temperatures with a thermal camera) is a practical application of Planck's Law.

The LWIR waves that a thermal camera sees can be affected by various environmental conditions, including absolute humidity, temperature, etc. When this happens, the wavelengths hitting the camera are not exactly the same as those emitted by the actual object (extreme summary, but you get the idea).

By setting up a blackbody you are telling the thermal camera that it can rely on the values for the pixels covering the blackbody to be a perfect reference. It can then compute the difference between the value it is actually reading, which will be less than perfect due to the atmospheric conditions, and the value it expects. This allows the camera to determine an offset to use for other temperatures (wavelenghts) to get a more accurate reading.

This is similar in concept to setting the whitebalance of an optical camera. When the optical camera receives slightly distorted colors, you can define an offset so that it corrects the spectrum to give you a more accurate color representation. On a thermal camera we are correcting for temperature instead of color. You want the blackbody reference constantly in the scene, as the environmental variables effecting the readings are less likely to stay constant than say an optical camera under a fluorescent light.

For thermal camera applications that are not dependent on accurate temperatures, like detecting a person along a fenceline, all we really care about are relative representations of "hot" and "cold", so blackbodies do not normally come into play.

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This use of a black body reference in the field of view is a good concept. However if the camera has drift concerns, then how do you know the field of view is uniform, especially where the black body reference is at? Because many of these companies are placing the black body so far away from the actual camera there is not many pixels covering the reference. If that area is non uniform because of drift, then what are you doing?

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The black body is supposed to be at the same range you intend to measure at. Of course there are lots of ways to set it up wrong, and at some point you just can't compensate for poor design or installation.

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Thermodynamic black bodies are not equivalent to optical black bodies that are pixel rendered, digitally digested and converted from radiation to resolution(false). Nice try BK, please keep your cameras lens out of physics. If a hardware only POC comes up we will seek you and your wikipedia wisdom. OH...case closed.

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Fatal googling has been known to one shot redditors...

#ArmednDangerous #Wolfhowl

No need for me to change bait on this one!

Simple, Max used math, not a lens'd thermal camera with what? ONVIF support LOL?

....Money for nothing, and your chicks for free. Oh Gee look at all the informative clickers with no clue on fact being facts?

#KISS

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This is article is very helpful. As an integrator, we must comply with this highly researched international standards. I deem that it is our moral obligation to educate the end users to be aware of the pros and cons of what product we recommend for this particular thermal camera application.

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Really great article. Thank you John.

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Thanks very much for the posting Charles and John.

I've been inundated by requests for clarification on the various screening options. I've also spent much time trying to correct some unfortunate misinformation that was spread by some manufacturers and integrators trying to take advantage of anxious end-users. The details you've provided regarding the standards will be of particular value.

Appreciate the ongoing research!

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This is probably one of the most well written articles on the subject ever.

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Well done IPVM! Very helpful article.

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Thanks for this very thorough article, really matches what we are trying to impose to our customers willing to deploy these scanning systems, with quite some difficulties I must say, as they really expect measures done on flows of poeple, thanks to the "good" marketing of the companies and vendors you mention.

I'm doubtful about several points however: ISO indicates that masks and face wash can impact the measure, and that's true in their field of analysis (measure done at upface level).

However, how can face washing impact the temperature of the inner canthus whatsoever ? I mean you're not washing the inside of your eye, and if some water drops get into it, the temperature goes back to normal after only a few seconds only (my guess though).

Also, it's true that wearing a mask causes your breathe to perturbate the measure, however as your breath is at your body temperature, couldn't that be instead an improvement ? I understand that the difference between the inner canthus temp and body temp is around 1 degree (celsius), so threshold for that measure is one degree lower than actual body temp expected, leading to more false positives if masks are used.

If anyone can explicit or correct me, I would be grateful !

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Hi Laurent, thanks for your questions.

The ISO and IEC don't explain exactly how cold water affects the inner eye. However, I would stress that the key zone of the face for body temp detection is technically "the region medially adjacent to the inner canthus of the eye", so it's not just the tiny fleshy bit of the inner eye but the skin around it as well, which would definitely cool down with some water.

Also, it's true that wearing a mask causes your breathe to perturbate the measure, however as your breath is at your body temperature, couldn't that be instead an improvement

As you noted, face skin temperature is not the same as body temperature - it's typically a few degrees lower, not just 1 degree (see OptoTherm's image below on "skin temperature offset"). So if someone's face reads 33°C, a hot breath exhalation will make it look warmer on the screen.

IPVM Image

Hope this helps, any other questions or follow-ups let me know.

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IPVM has done a great job of highlighting inaccurate and false claims regarding thermal screening, etc, and shown plenty of suspect installations. With that said, would it be possible to profile an accurate installation, to include the processes and contingencies in place?

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Please explain how the fever detection world.....

Protects us from a big beast like....

EBOLA?

yah? that's what I thought.

Might as well tell everyone with Plantar Fasciitus to move to the MOON. Oh hai Elon!

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Great summary of IEC!

Correct me if I am wrong. Per the IEC spec, I didn't see any fever detection thermal cameras on the market which can meet all the requirements.

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