HID Readers BLE DoS Attack And DEF CON Hack Examined

By Brian Rhodes, Published Aug 31, 2021, 09:03am EDT

While mobile credential usage is gaining, mega access control provider HID has acknowledged a DEF CON 2021 hack and a vulnerability with BLE for multiple reader lines, including HID iClass SE and HID Signo (see IPVM test results).

IPVM Image

Inside this note, we examine how the hack works, share detailed feedback from HID on the vulnerability and examine the problems with HID's solution to this.

DEF *** '** (****) *************

* ***** ** *********** exposed * ********* ***-****** vulnerability ** *** *** 29 **** ****** *** Mobile-compatible ******* *** *********** locks **** **, ********** them **** ******* *** access ***********.

** *** ***** *****, they **** *** *** DoS (****** ** *******) attack ** ~** *** readers **** *** ******* on ******* ****** ** and ***** ******:

** ********,*** ****** **** ********, ********** *** ******-**-******* attack **** '***-***-***** *******' and **** ****** ************ it '******** *** ****** from ***** **** ** read ********** ***********' ****** the *** ******:IPVM Image

How *** ************* ***** - $** *** ***

IPVM Image*** *********** ******** *** DoS ****** ***** ******* types ** ************ ********* BLE ******, **** *** most ********** ******* ***** on ***$** **************** *** *** ******-********* apps **** ***** *** HID *** ****** **** multiple *** ***** ******** to *******.

*** *********** ************ *** attack ***** *******-******* ******* that *** ** ******** hidden ** ****, ******, or ******* **** **** powered **.

*** ***'* ****, *** is **** **** ** HID ****** *** *** configuration ******* *** ****** Manager ***. *** ****** demonstrated **** ******* *** repeatedly ********** ** ******* to ****** *** ****** app ** * ********* bad ****** *** **** had *** **** ******, essentially ******* *** ****** from ************* **** *** credentials (***** ** *******) and ** ************* **** the ********* **** ****** took ***** ********** ** Wiegand ** **** ** used.

Readers ******* **** ***

*** ********* ********* *** DoS ******** ****** *** frequencies **** **** ****** what *** ****** *** parse, *********** ******* ** to **** **. *** reader **** ******* ********** to ***** ***********.

*** *** *** *********** confirmed ****, ********** *** DoS ******** *** ****** from ****** **** *********:

  1. ****** * *** ******, no **-***** ** ******** by *** ******, *********** becoming '**** *******' **** cannot **** ***** ***********.
  2. ** *********** ********** ** powered **, ** ** 13.56 ***/*** *** *** is *******.
  3. ************, *** '****** ** not ********** *****' ****** the ****** *** ****** be **********/******** *** ******** to ******* ** ***** out *** ******.

HID ******** *** *** ***** ** *******

*** ********* ** **** the ****** ******* ***** credentials ********:

** ** ********** ******** for ** ******** ** flood *** ****** **** enough ********* *******, **** Bluetooth, **** **** *** reader ** ****** ** read *** ***** *********** credential ***** ** ******* keypad ******* *** *** duration ** *** ******.

*******, **** ********* ************** ********* ***** ********* ***** **** ************ during * *** *** attack:

[*** *******] ***********-**** ****** modality ** ********* **** susceptible ** ** ************ during * *********-***** *** attack.

What *** **********

** **** **** *** risk, *** ********** ******* off *** *** ***** in *** *******:

*** *** ********* ****** products, ********* *** *****, such ****Bluetooth *** ** ***********, ***** ********** *** **** ** * *********-***** *** ******. Based on HID analysis, we ******* **** ** *** **** ********* ********** for customers who have concerns about Bluetooth-based DoS attacks on readers. [Emphasis Added]

******* ***/********* *** *** be **** *** ***'* configuration ***, *** **** reader **** ** ******** reconfigured, ** *** ** active ** ******* *** no ******* ********** *********** connects ** ******** ******* at ****.

Problems **** ********* ***

*******, ******* *** *** can ****** ** *********** usability *** ****** ********** problems. ************, ********* *** essentially ********** ***** ******** from ***** *** ******.

*** ****** *** ***** be **** ** ***-**** mode, *** ***** ** reduces *** *** ****** is ****:

  • *** ****** *** ****** read ***** ** ~** cm (~* ******) **** ~100 * (~*** ****).
  • **** ***-******* ******* *** configure *** ******* ** BLE ** ********.

** ********* *****, *** Mobile '******* **********' **** Twist & ** ** not ********* **** *** disabled, *** ****** ****** integrated **** ******** (********), iOS *** ****** ******** using *** *** *** yet ********* ***** ************** ******* **** ****.

** ********, ***'* ****** configuration *******, *** ****** Manager, **** *** **** Apple *******, *** ******* it *** ***** *********** can ** ****** *** iPhones ** ********* ********.

Signo ****** ***** ********

*** **** **** ************* cards ******* * ******** operation **** ** ***** own, *** *** ******* will ******** ** *** the ****** ******* *** instead ** ************* *****:

** *** **********, *** profile ** ************ **** will *** ******** * potential **** ** *** attacks *** ********* **** also *** ****** *** inherent ******** *********** ** configuration *****. **, *** primary ********** ** ** offer **** ****** ************* functionality **** * **** that **** ******** * real-time ********** *********** ****** (HID ****** *******).

Unclear ** ******** ****** ** *** ******* ****** ** *******

*** *** *** ******* whether *** '*********' *** would **** *** * firmware ****** ** ******* replacing *** ********* ******** readers **** *** *****:

***** *** ** ************* that ** *** ******** to *********** ** **** time.

********* ** *** ********* assessment, ******** ********** ** a *** **** ********* is *********** ** ******* with ********* ************* *******. Thus, ********* *** ******** the **** ** ** critical ****** ********** ********* communication ** ***** *******.

Impact ** ***** ****** ***********

***** *** *********** **** verified **** ************* **** HID, ** ** ******** that ***** ******* ***** BLE *** *********** ** the **** **** ** attack.

******, *** ** ******** used ** ****** ******, being ** ***** ** option *** ******** ********* including *** **** ****** in ********* ****** ******* ********.

Comments (32)

***. * ** ***** to ******* *** ** all ** ******* ***** we ***'* *** ** anyway. * ** **** my ********** **** *** be ***** *'* ***** to **** **** ** this......

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*******, ******* ***** ** serve ***** *********. ** you *** **** ********** to ** **** ***** step ** ** ********** cost ** ***, * imagine **** **** ** unhappy. * ***** ** as ****. *******, ** they *** ******* ** charge *** * **** and ********** ***** *** the *****, *** *** are ******* ** ***** it, **** ***** ****** be ** ******* ** all.

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** **** **** ***** unique ***** **** **** readers *** *****. *** sure *** **** *** guys *** ******* ** do * *** ******. None ** *** ********* have ****** ** *** smartphones ** ***********. *** it ** ** *********** thought...

Agree: 1
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*** *******, *** *****-****** of ******* **** *** defend ******* **** ******-**-*******.

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***** **** ** ********** what * ***** **** a "****" ** *** product **** *****'* ******* for **** **** ** DoS ******, ******* **** a "*************" ** * stretch ***** **** *** information ********** ** **** *****.

************, ***** **** ** most ********** ********* **** sucks *** ***** ******* operations ** ** ********, I ***'* *** *** actual ******** ************* ********* here. **** ***'* ******* the ****** ** **** indiscriminate ******* ** **** signals ** *** **** ACS. **'* *** ******** any ****** ** ** SEOS ********** **** ** the ********, ** ******** the ****** **** ****** of * ****** ********** to ** ******* ** played **** ** *** reader.

***** ** ****** ******* scary ** **** **** a "********* *************", * don't *** ******** **** that ***** ****** ** to ********* ** ** clients **** **** ******* Bluetooth ********** ** ******** this. *** ***** **** happens -- ** ********* here -- ** ******* jams * ****** *** stops ** **** *******.

****** ********, ** *** anyone **** ** *** I'm ***** ****? ************ am ******* ** *****'* something *'* ******* ** my **** ** ****, because ** ***, **'* a *** *** ** nothing ** **'* **** presented ** ***.

Agree: 9
Disagree: 1
Informative: 2
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Funny

* #*, *** ***** to *** ******(*) **** the ****** (****** * person, ** * ******-********** jamming ******) **** ** be?

**** *** ****** ** removed **** *** ****, or **** *** ******* device ** ******* *** disabled/moved, ** *** ***** solved?

******* **** ***** ***** be * ******* ** someone ********** ***** ** at *:** ** **** work *** *** **** all ** * ********'* readers, *** ********** *** jamming **** **** *** way ** *******.

Agree: 1
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*** ******* ********* **** we **** **** ** suspend ******* ********* ** turnstiles **** ************* ***** away **** * ******* lot ******* ************* ** special *********. *** **** was ********* ***** *** $10 ****** **** **** a "**** *******", ***** will ********* **** *** worst ***********. ***** ** is ***, **** ***** is ****** ******** *** environmentally-dependent.

*** ***** *** ** increased **** **** ********* antennas *** ********* ************.

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Informative: 1
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**** * ***** **** a "****"... ******* **** a "*************" ** * stretch

*'** ******* *** ***** to "*** ******* *** *** Attack *** *** *** Hack ********" *** ******* the **** **** *****. I ***** **** ** the **** *******, ****** way ** *********** *** issue.

*******, **** (****)**********:

******** ** ** *********** system, ****** ******** **********, internal ********, ** ************** that ***** ** ********* or ********* ** * threat ******.

***** ****'* **********, **** is ***. **** **** have * ******* ****** but *** ******* ** score.

*********, *** *** ****** how **** ** ** issue **** ** *** to ****.

Agree: 3
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Funny

** *******, * ****'* actually *********** *** *** the ******* *** *******, or *** ****** ***** of *** **** "*************." I ******* ****'* ****** how ** **** ***, and *'** ********** *** been *** ***** *********** similar ****** ** *** past ** * ********** the *************. * ******** thought **** ******* *** important ******* ** **** provide ******* ** *** actual **** *** *** associated *****.

** *********** ***** *** more **** ** ******* that * ** *** personally ********* ***** **** (based ** **** ** know ***) ******** ** other "***************" ** **** security ********, *** ** ask ** * *** missing ********* **** ***** cause **** ** ** more *******.

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*** *** ****** *** missing ********. ****** ** very **** *********-*********, *** your ***-***** *** *** be ********* ********.

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*********'* *** *****:

** *******, * ************* is ******* ** * weakness ** *** ************* logic (*.*., ****) ***** in ******** *** ******** components ****, **** *********, results ** * ******** impact ** ***************, *********, OR ************.

**** **** **** ** an ******** ** ****** *****, ***** ** **** of *** **** ** information ********.

**** ******'* **** ******** to *** **** "*************" in * ******** ***** is **** *** ***** is ********** **** ** breach *** *************** ******* (such ** ******** ********** keys ** ******** ***********, as *** *********).

** *** ****** **** to ** ********* ***** it, * ******* *** could *** **** ******* are ********** ** ****-******* attacks **** **** ********. The ****** **** *** don't **** ***** ************* into **** ************* ** because **** **** ** attack ** *** ** your ****** ***** (****** you ****** ** **** in ** **** **** has ****** **** ******* usage). ********, ** **** instance *** ****** ******** whether * ********* ******* attack ** ** **** threat ***** ****** ********** the ******.

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** ********** *** ** denial ** *******. ** removing *** ************* ** the ****** **** *** cause * ******** ***** then **** ***** ** a ******* ****** ** the ***** *****?

* ***** *****, *******, the **** ** ***. Most ****** ******** *** be ******. **** ****** are ********** *** **** few ****** ***** ***** this. *** ****** ** more ****** ** ** nuisance ** ******.

** **** ******** ********, if *** *** *** needing **, ** ** not * *** **** to *******. **** ******* area ** ****** ******.

*** **** *** ****** alarms *** ** ****** used ****** **** ***** readers ********** ** * denial ** *******. **** cut *** ****

***

Agree: 1
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* *** ********* ** understand ** **** "*******" is * **** **** is ***** ****** ****** but ****** **********. *********** "jamming" ********* ****** ** transmission ** * ******** amplified ****** **** ******** a ********* ****** **** that ** ****** ** "heard" ** "**********". **** is **** ** ***** referred ** **** **** folks ***** ** "*** jamming" ** "**** ***** jamming". *** *** ***** refers ** **** ** "harmful ************".

**** ******** **** ** jamming ** ******* ***** FCC *********** *** ***-******** applications ** *** ** and **** ***** ***** of *** *****.

*** *** ** ******** here ** *** ******* because ***** ** ** attempt **** ** ******* any ***** ***** ************. The ******* ** ******** are ********* ** ********, even ** **** *** not ********* ** ********.

Agree
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Informative: 1
Unhelpful
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**** ** ******* ********. I'll ******* **** ** the **** *****.

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** *** ****** ** disabled, **** ** ******** to **** ** **** again. ****** *****? **-**********? Does ** **** ***** working ** **'* *** again ***** * ****** of ****?

** **'* **** **** for *** ***** *** a ******** *** ** wait *** ***** ******* tech ** **** *** and ****** **, ****** they **** *********** ******* of ******* **** *** building. * ***, ********. This ** * *******, but ** ****** ********** there ***** **** ** a **** ** ** people ******* ** *** in. **** *** ***** could *********** '*****' ** with *** ***** *** they've *** ****** ****** to *** ******** ******* proper ******.

********* * ** ***** with ***. **'* ******** if ** ******* ** some ***, *** ******* has ****** **** *********** compromised.

Agree
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Funny

*** *** ******* ** that **** ** * denial ** ******* ****. Nothing ********* ** ************ in *** ************ ***** compromise *** ********* ********** information ** ******** ***** unauthorized ******.

*** ****** ** *** problem ** ******** ******* to *** ***-***** **** on ***** *******. ** many **********, **** ***** be **** "************". *******, it ** ********* ** consider **** *** ***** of * ********** ********* may *** ** ** simple ** "*** ******". They *** ******* ** intending ** ******* ** prevent ****** *********. ******** it *** ******* ********** of "***** **** ** the ****". *** *** doesn't *** **, *** then...neither ** ***.

** **** ***** **** may *** ******. *******, in *** **** ** turnstiles, ******** ********** *******, or *** ***** ** lockers ******* ** ** emergency ********, ** *** matter.

******* ******** ******* **** access ** *** ***** console **** ******** ********* or ********* * ****, and ********** ******** **** obviously **** ** ****, but ***** *** *** often ********** ********* **** are ******* **********.

Agree
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Informative
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Funny

** **** ****, "****" is **** **** * bit ** * *******, in ** *******.

* ******** ** ********** hack, *************, ***** *** hacker ********* **** ********* would *** ** **** to *** ** ******.

**** ***** *** ******** nothing ******* ** ***** a ***-***** ****, *** only ***** *** ****** persists, ***** ******** **** (very **********) ****** ****** in *** *** ******.

**** ** ********* ********* vandalism, ** * ***** level **** ********* ********* into * *******.

*** ******* *** ** joke, *********... *** **** one ****** ********* ***** it ******** *** ******** presence ** * ********** device.

**** ******* *** ****, but ** ********* **** is * ****** ******** attack.

Agree: 1
Disagree: 1
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Funny

*** ***** *** **** with * ******* ****** not ** **** ********* premises *** ****** ***-***** of ***** *******?

*** ***** *** **** with ******** *******, ******** workers ******* **** *****?

******** *** - ************ to ******** - *** - ******* ******** - yes.

*** **** ***** ******* of ******* * ***-************ BLE ****** **** **** are $**-*** -- **** a ******** *******. * don't **** **** (***) SI's **** **** **** of ********* ** **** the ********* ******/*.

**** ********* ******* **** be ******* *** *** will **** ** ** and ********** ***** **** one ** ******* *** -- *** ******* *** can't ******* **** *** reader *******, *** **** need ** **** **** off *** ****, **** them *** ** *** zone ** ******, ****** them *** ***** **** back *** *********.... *** will ** ****** *** this *****, *** ****** HID ?

**** **** **** *** stays ********, ******* ** will **** * *** of **** ****** *** unhappy ********* *** ******* to *** ** ******* a *** ***..

Agree
Disagree
Informative: 1
Unhelpful
Funny

*** ***** *** **** with * ******* ****** not ** **** ********* premises *** ****** ***-***** of ***** *******?

* ***** **** *** reader *** ** *** LOS ** *** ******. 200-300ft ****** **** * best **** ******** ***** they ***** * *****-*********** antenna ***** ** *** receiver.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful: 1
Funny

*** *.* ** *** data **** *** ****** over *** *****, *** surprising.

******* *** ******* ******* download ********** **** ********** on **** ***** *** walk ****** *** ********. It **** **** *** an **** ** *** range ** *** ****** using **** **** ****** tiny *******... *** *** whip ******* **** ** used ** *** ****** or *** ****** *** board *****.

*** ***** **** **** interesting ** ********** *** range ** *** **** used ** ***. **** is * **** ***** example ***** *** *********** board **** ** *** DoS ******, ******* *** special :

******* **** ***** (***** PHY) **** ****** ******** (It ****** *****) - Blogs - ****** **** - ****** *******

** **** **** **** showed **** ***** ***** over **** ***** **** standard ****. **********, * have *** ***** **** range, *** * ********** can **** ****** *** building *** *** *** Signos ** ***** ****** and **** *** ******** next **** **** ** phone's **** **** *******.

*** *** ** *************** commands ********** **** ***** is **** * *** idea, ******* ** ***** to **** **** ** and *** ****** ** better ******* *** * have ** ** ****** and ******* *** ** the ******.

Agree
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Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

**** ****, ***.

** **** **** **** showed **** ***** ***** over **** ***** **** standard ****.

******* * ************ **** to ********* ***, *** test *** **** *** with ****** ***.

****’* ** **** - I ***’* **** * Signo *** * ** have ** ******, ********** the **** ****. * got *** *** *** - **** ** **** I ***:

IPVM Image

*** -** *** *** highest ******* * *** with *** **** ******. It ***** ******* ***** 1/4 ** *** ****.

****, ****** ** ******* attacks *** *** ***** flooding *** ****** **** requests.

*’* *** **** ******* LOS ** ***** ***** that’s ***** ******.

Agree: 2
Disagree
Informative: 1
Unhelpful
Funny

***** **** *** ****** for ******* ** *** -- *** *** ****** the ***** **** *** 4.x ** *** *.* which ** **** ** required ** ******* *** longer ***** *********. **** the ***** **** *** Nordic ***** *** *** Airtag **** ****** ***** support *** *.* *** BLE *.* **** *** extended ***** ******* ****** to ***** ***** ******. If *** *** **** the ***** *** *** native *** *** *.* you **** *** *** reduced ***** *****.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

** *** *** **** the ***** *** *** native *** *** *.* you **** *** *** reduced ***** *****.

* **** ****** ***- ** **** ********* 5.0 - ** **** good ******?

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

********** ** *** ***** track ****. ***** ******** of *** *** ******** can ******* ******** *****, but **'* ********* ** highlight **** *** ************ in ***** *** ******* of ******* ** *** protocol ************* ******. ***** is * *** **** technical ****** ***** **** here:****** ** ******: ********* Long *****

*******, **** ***** **** both ******* **** ** not **** **** *** physical ********** ** ******* that *** ********, *** be ********** ** ******** take ********* ** ** as ****.

** ****** ****** *** an ***** **** **** is ********** ****** ** handle *** *** ********, you ***'* *** *** extended *****. **** ******* having *** *** **** is **** *** ******. The *********** ******* ** the **** **** *** to ** ******** **** the *********** ******* ** the ******** ********* ****** development. ** ***** ********* are ****, ** ** those *** ******** ****'* specifically ***** ********* **, then *** ***** ***'* get *** ******** *****.

Agree
Disagree
Informative: 1
Unhelpful
Funny

"****" ** ***** * lot ** ********** ****. Certainly * *** ******, but * ******** *** is **** * *** attack.

Agree: 1
Disagree: 1
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

***** **** **** *** meanings **** ** **** them.

*******, ** **** ****, an ************ ***** ***** is **** ** ****** the ********** ******** ** a ******* ** ****** it *** *** ********. In ** *** **********, most ** *** ************ research ********* ***** ***** that **** ** * "hack".

********* ** **** ***-**** it *** ****** ** very *** ******, *** not ********* *** *** to ***** *****.

*** ******, ***** ****** to ****** ******* ***** in ** ********** ****** would ***** **** ******* consequences.

*** **** ****** ***** here ** *** ***-***** to ********** *** ********* limits ** **** ***** security ************** **** *** will *** **, *** how ** **** ******* to ********* *********. **** they *** ******** ** build *** *** **** of ***** ******** ***** to **********.

******* ***** ****** ******* stuck ******* ** ***-********* situations? *********** *** ***'* phone ****** ** ******** and ****** **** ** call ** ********* ***'* working ** ********.

**** ** **** **** security ********* ****** **** access ** ********* ******** areas? **** **** * means ** ******** *** access ******* ******* *** efficiently ** *** ********* accounts *** **.

******* **** ** * "sky ** *******" *********. It ** ****** ****** "Some ** ***** ******** may *** **** *** way *** ****** **** to. **** ***********."

Agree
Disagree
Informative
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Funny

***** *****!

* ** *** ** the ******* *********** *** co-presenters ** *** *****. There *** * *** things ** **** ******* that *** ************ **** the ********* ******* **** I ******* * ***** clarify.

*. * ******'* ******** the ****** ** * "flood". *** ****** ** not ***** "***********" ** the *** **** *** word ***** *******. *** reader ** ********* ************ sent ** **. ** this ****, *** *********** tells *** ****** ** pause ********** ********* *** 8 *******. ** ****** sure **** *** *********** is **** ***** ****** 8 *******, ** ** ensured **** *** ***** never *******, *** *** reader ******* ********* ************.

*. *** **** ********** attack *** ***** ** the $** ******** ******, as *** **** ** is *** ********.

*. **** ***'* ***** "rapidly ********** ** *** reader" ** "********** * bad ****** ****". *** commands **** *** ***** valid *** ***** ********* as ******** ** *** reader.

*. *** ****** *** fingerprint ****** ** **** susceptible ** *** ****** is ******* *** ******* being **** **** ******** autonomous ********* ** *** RFID ******* ** *** reader. *** ***** ** the ****** ********** ************, and ********* **** *** wholly ******** *** ** not ***** *** **** code. **** ********* ********* reading ** **** **** are ********.

*. ******* **** *** disabled *** ***** ** reconfigured **** *** **** via ****.

Agree
Disagree
Informative: 4
Unhelpful
Funny

****** *** *** ******** Babak!

**: '*. **** ***'* ***** "rapidly ********** ** *** reader" ** "********** * bad ****** ****". *** commands **** *** ***** valid *** ***** ********* as ******** ** *** reader.'

**** **** **** **** a ***** **** ********** must ** ****? *** HID ****** *********** * valid '***' ** ****** key **** ** ***** in ***** *** * credential ** ** ********. Is **** *** ********?

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

**** **** **** **** a ***** **** ********** must ** ****? *** HID ****** *********** * valid '***' ** ****** key **** ** ***** in ***** *** * credential ** ** ********. Is **** *** ********?

*** *** *** ******* to ** **** ****** credentials ** **** ** any ****. *** *********** does *** **** ** be ***** ****** ***********.

*** ****** **** ** the **** *** ****** SE, ********** **, ** Signo ****** **** *** BLE *******, ********** ** whether *** *** ** has *** **** *********, connected ** * **********, or ********** **** *** MOB ** ***** ****.

Agree
Disagree
Informative: 1
Unhelpful
Funny

*** **, **** ***** sense. ****** *** *** clarity.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

* ******'* ******** *** attack ** * "*****".

****, * **** *****. So **’* ****** * trickle.

****** * *** ** above.

** **** ***** ***** you ****** *** ****** to ******* ** ******** the ****** *** ****** not ** **** ** site, *** ****** * soffit ** ***** ************* structure, ***** *** *********** scenarios:

*. ****** **** ********* 5

*. *** ** **** fancy ****** *********** *** sideline-like ********-****** ********* ********

** ***** *****, *** there ********* ********** ********** involving ********* ** *** reader **** ***** ** least ***** *** ********* to ***** *** ********?

****, *** **** ** Airtag **** ? :)

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

****, * **** *****. So **’* ****** * trickle.

**** ** ** *****, I ****'* ******* ** you *** ****** ****. I *** **** ********** the ********* ** **** was *********. *** ****** "floods" ** *** **** are *** ** ******* they ******* * ********* where *** ****** ** something ** ** ********* that ** ********** *** infrastructure. **** ** ******* to **** ***** *** digital ****.

* *** **** ****** to ******* **** **** the ****** **** ***** isn't ******* ********* **** of ****** **** ******* and *** ****** ***'* keep **, *** ****** because *** ****** ******* to **** * ******* that ***** ** ** stop ******** **'* ***** and ****** *** * period ** ****, *** we *** ******* *** same *******.

** **** ***** ***** you ****** *** ****** to ******* ** ******** the ****** *** ****** not ** **** ** site, *** ****** * soffit ** ***** ************* structure, ***** *** *********** scenarios:

*. ****** **** ********* 5

*. *** ** **** fancy ****** *********** *** sideline-like ********-****** ********* ********

** ***** ** ******* this ******, *** ****** have ** ** ****:

*. *** ***** ** source ****** **** ** able ** "****" *** reader, ********* ** ***** not **** **** *** reader ******, *** ****, not **** ***** ** send *** *********** ********.

*. *** ****** **** be **** ** "****" the ***** ** ****** device, ********* ***** ** no *** ** **** the "*****" ******* *** stop ***** **** **'* doing.

** **** ***** ****, you *** **** **** on **** *** **** any *** ** ******* device ** ******* *** HID ****** ************* ******* and ******** *** *******. If *** *** *** the ****** ** ******** when *** **** *** it, **** *** *** interact **** **. *** range ***** ** ******** by *** **** ******** radio-reflecting ********, *** ******** speaking, **** ******** ** weather. (***** ******* ***** waves ** *** *.**** spectrum.) ************* * ***'* have * ****** ** provide *** **** **** because *** ********* *** so *******.

** *** ** **** second **** ****, *** I *** *** ** "very **** ***". ***** are ******* *** ***** that ***** ************* ********* beyond ***, ******* **** is ******* *** ********* designed ******* **** *** both ***** ******* ********. Since *** *** ****** on-board ** ***** ** antenna **** **** **** limited *****, **** **** out *** ******. * would ****** * ********** non-scientific *** *********** ***** of * ****** ******* meters ***** ***** *************. Since *** *****'* *** antenna ** ** * different ****** **** *** chip ******* ******** ** the **** ******** *******, the ******* ***** ***** likely ****** ******* *** two ********.

** ***** *****, *** there ********* ********** ********** involving ********* ** *** reader **** ***** ** least ***** *** ********* to ***** *** ********?

******** *** ************ ***** of *** ****** *** help. *** ***** *** be ******** ** ****** Manager. ******** **** ******* energy ** *** *.**** spectrum **** ****.

****, *** **** ** Airtag **** ? :)

******* ** **** *** mean ** "****". :-)

**'* * **** **** device ** *** **** does *** ******* **** to ** *****, *** the ******* ** ****. That **** ***** ************ frequency *** ***** *** also *******. **** ** engineering *********** *** ** consideration ** *** ******* limitations ** **** ********** and ******** *********** ** radio *****, **'* ******** really, ******, ****** ****.

Agree: 1
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Informative: 2
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Funny: 1
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