How US Courts Assess Surveillance Technology (Frye/Daubert Hearings)

By IPVM Team, Published Nov 22, 2022, 08:43am EST (Research)

************ **** ******* *********, ****** *********** and ***** ********* ******** *** *** being ************ ******* ** *** *********** to **** ***** *********. *** ********* questions ***** *** ******** ** ******* mean **** ***** ***** ** ******** are *** ********** ** ** ********** in *****.

IPVM Image

Frye *. *******

***********, ***** *** ********************* ****** ********* ******** ****** ************ *** ******** ** *** ******* detection **********, ** ****** *** ******** of ***** ********* * **** ** ** ******** court ***** ***** *** * ********* for ******* *** *******’* ******** ** admissible ** *** *****.**** ******** *** ******* ******** *** rigorous ********* **** ** ****** ** determine ******* ******** ** ************** *****. (Both *** ***** ***** **** ***** precedents.) ****, ***** ** ** ***** standard, ***** ** ******* ** ****** opinion ** **** ** ******** ** generally ******** ** *** ******** ********** community.

*******, ******** ************ ** *** ******* ***** *** in **** ******, ******** ******** ***** on**** *******: ******* *** ****** ** ********* has **** ******; ******* ** *** been ******* ** **** ******; *** known ** ********* ***** ****; *** whether ** *** **** ******** ** the ******** ********** *********.

******** ** *** ************* ********* ** Frye ** *******. ********** **** ******* the *******, ***** ** **** * mini-trial, ** * ***** *** ****** to **** *** ******* ***** *****. Defendants *** **** ***** ********* ***** on ****** ***** ******* *** ******** met *** ********* ** ****** **** been ********* ** **** ** ******* hearings.

******* ** **** ****** ******** ** a ***** ********* ***** **** *** business ********* ** *** ************ ********** marketed ** *** ***********.

** *** ******** *******, ** **** at *** ****** ** ************ ************ acceptance ** *.*. ****** *** ******* the ********* ****** *** ** ********* whether **** **** ** ******** *** be **** ** *** * **********.

Surveillance *****

**** *** ******* ******** ******* ***’* come **** **** *** ************ ***** because ** ** * ********* ******** technology *** ***** ***** *** ******** rules *** *********. *** ******* *** be ****** ************ ** **’* *********** ************* *** ****** ********* ** *** Constitution ** ***’* ** *************.

********* ********************* ** *** *** **** ***** court ******, ************** ***** ****** * reliable ******* ******* **** *** ***** accurately ******** ****** ********, *** ****** evidence ******* *** ***** ** ******* to ******* ********** ********* *** ***** was *** ******** ****. ********* **** phone ***** *** ** ****** ******* it ** *** ****** **** ** authenticate, ******* **** *** **** ****** Weissman & ***** ***** ** * 2021********* ******.

***** ************ ***** ****** ***** *** be ******* ** **** ** *******, expert ** ******** ******** ** *** video ** *** ******* ***** **.

Facial ***********

****** *********** ******** *** **** **** by *** *********** ** ******* *****, but ** *** “*** *** **** introduced ** *****” ** *** *.*., according ** ***** ************** ** *** ********** ******* ** Entertainment & ********** ***.***** *** **** ** ***** *** close ****. ** ****, * *****, New **** ****** ************************ *********** ******** ******* * *** accused ** ******** ***** **** * TJ **** *****, *** ***** *** a **** *******. ********* ******* ********, *** ***** ******* *** *******, but ******* ** ***** ******* **** it, *********** ******* *** ********* * plea **** ** **** ******, *** he **** ***** *****.

** *** ********** ** ************ ******* by ****** ***********, *********** **** ******** start ** **** ** ** **********, though, ****** ********* *. ****** ********* in *** ********** *****. **** **** happens, ******** ***** ******** **** ****** become ** *****, ********** **** *** technology ** **** ** ******** ***** of **********, *** *****.

******** ******* **** ******* ******** ** a ****** ** *** **********, ***** is “*********** ***********,” ****** *****. *** enforcement ****** *********** ******** ******* ******* 117 ******* ******** ******, *** ***** a ******* ** *** *.*. *** enforcement ************* **** *** ****** ** running ****** *********** ********, ********* ** the *****.

“***** *** *********** ******** *** ************ integrating ****** *********** ********** **** ***** daily **********, **** *** *** ************ sufficient ********** ** ****** *** ******** of ***** *******,” ****** *********.

*** ********** * *****-**** ****** ******** in **** **** ********* ********** **** the *** ***** *********** ** *********** to ******* ****** *********** **********. *********, at *** ****, “******** ********** * 95 ******* ******** **** *** *** facial *********** ********** *** **** ********* disclaimed ********* *** ******* ** **** that ********* ** ********* **** *** San ***** *********** ** ***********.”

*** ******* ***** ** ******* **** when *** ***** ********** * *****-**** ban ** ****** *** ** ****** facial *********** **********. **** *** *********** agencies ****’* ***** *** ******* ** the *******, ********* *************. ************ * ******** ******* **** **** ********* *** a *********** ******, *** ** *** replied ** ******** ********* ** *** company ******* ************.

*********** **** ***** **** ****** *********** can ** *** **** ******** *** Black ***** **** *** ***** *****. According ** ********* **** ******* *** ******** ********* ** ********* and **********, **** ****** *********** ********** generated ** **** ** *** ***** as **** ***** ********* *** ***** populations ** **** *** *** ***** populations. ******** ***** ** ***** ********* were **** **** ** ***** ***********.

**** *** ******** ****** *********** ********* in ********* *********** ******** ***** **********, it ** ****** **** **** ********* may *** ** ********* *** ****** disparities ** *** **** ** ***** positives. ** ***** ****** *** *********, the ********** *** ***** * ****** chance ** ********* * **** ** Daubert *********.

****** *********** *** **** ***** ** be ****** ******** *****“***** **********,”** **** *******. *** **** ***** in ***** **** **** *** **** identification ********* *** ** ***** **** of **** *.** *******. ** **** testing, ***** ***** **** ***** ** be **** *********** ***** ****-***** **********.

Other **********

*** ******** ** *** **** ** biometric ******** **** ********** ****** **** acceptance ** ****** *** ** ****** under *** ********. ** ********* ******, * ********, *** **** ***** in ******* **** ******* ** ***** out * ********-**** **** ** *** copy ****** *** ******* *** * forensic *********** **** ******** ** *** city’s ******** ******* *** ***** ******* they ****’* **** *** **** ****.

**** ***** ** *** ******** **** also **** ***** ** ***** *** Daubert ****. ** ******* ****, * Michigan ******* ***** ***** **** * “touch” *** ********, ***** ****** ************* genotyping ********, ****’* **** ****** ** evidence **** * *** ******* **** firearms ********** ***** * *** **** was ** ********, **** ***** * tiny *** ****** *** *********.“*** *** ******** ****** ** ** admitted ** **** **** — ** essence, **** ** ** ** ******* times **** ****** ** ****** ************ is * *********** ** *** *** on *** *** **** ** ** is *** — ** *** ****** evidence ** ***,” *.*. ******** ***** Janet *. **** ***** ***** ******.

“** ** * *********** ** ******** DNA **********, ************ ******, *********** *******…********** theory, ******** **********, **************, *** ********** opinions **** ****** ** *** ************* of **** **** ** **** ** be * ******** *** ** *** parts,” **** *********. “*** ****** ** justice ******** ****.”

**************, ******* ***-*** **** ** ********* forensic ********, *** **** **** ***** to **** ***** ************************* ** **** *****.

********** ***** ** ********* ********, **** voice ** **** ***********, **** **** served ** ************* ***** *** *** enforcement, *** *** ******** ** ****** to ******* *******. ************, ** ***** prints, **** **** ********* ****** ** admissible, ********* ** ************* ** *******.

******** **** ********, ** *********** ****** from ****** ** ************ ******* ** their ******** *** *******, *** **** been ****** **** ** ****** ********** the *****. ***** **** *** *** of **** ********, “*********** **** ***** to ******* ********** ** ******** **********, capable ** ********* ************* *** ****** in ***** ********* ** ******** *********,” authors **** ****** *** **** ******** wrote ** ***** ********* *** ******* ** ******** *** and ***********.

**** ****, ***** ************** ** *** ******** ****** *** Biotechnology ***********, **** ** *** ******** Institutes ** ******, ********* ******** **** analysis ** * “**** ****** ** identification ***** *********** ** *** **** features ** *** ******* ****** ** different **********.”

******* ******* ******** ** ****** ************ about ********* ******** *******, ********* ******** voice *** **** ********. “************ ******” policing ********* **** **** ******* ********* and ***** ********* **** **** ** law *********** **** ***** ********* ******** are ****** ******* ****** ** *****, the ******** *********** ** ******** ******* Lawyers **** ********* *****’* ****** ** Science *** ********** ****** ** ****. **, **** ******.

*** ****** ******** ** ********* ************ technologies—including (*** *** ******* **)****** ***********, **** ***********, **** *** retinal ********, ********* ********, *** ****************—***** ******** **** ** ******* ****-******* communities, ********* **** ** ********** *** *********** ****** ****** *********.******** ** ********** **** **** ******* these ******** ***** ******* ********** ******* concerns ********** **** ****-**** *** ********** searches ** ****** *** ******.”

Gunshot *********

*********** *** **** ** *** ****** interest *** **** *** * *** years *** ** ****** *********** ** over *** ****** **** ** **** on ** ** * ************ *** crime-detection ****, ******* ** ******** *******. The *******, **********-***** ******* **** *** technology, ***** ** ****** ** ** percent ********, *** *********** ******* **** ********** *** * ******* challenges ** *** ** ******** *****. The ******* **** **** *** ********** has ***** **** ***** ************ ***** either ********. *******, *********** ******** ******** and ******* ********* **** **** **** in **** *** ***** ** ** states.

**** ***** ** *** ***** ******** on *********** ******** *** *** ** convictions ***** ********, ** *** ***** prosecutors **** ****** ******** ** *** the ******** ** ********* *** ******** after * ***** *********. *** ******* told **** ** **** *** **** of *** ** ***** **********.

***** *** ** ***** *** ********* where ******** ** *********** ******** ******** in *** *********** ** *********** ** appeal. ** ******* ****, * *********, New **** ************** ***********’* **** **** ** * case ******* * *** ***** ****** Simmons *** ***** ** “********* ******** scientific **********.”

*** *** ***** ***** **** *** evidence, ***** ******** ** * ********** on * *** ********** ******, ****** have **** ******** ******* *** ******* did *** **** **** ********* **** would **** ******* ******* ** ***** cross-examine * *********** ****** *** *********** the *********.

*********** ****** ** ******* *** *********, but **** ** *** ****** ******** representing ******* **** $*** *** **** for “****** **********” *** $*,*** *** a “******** ******,” ********* ** *** ruling. *** ****** ********’* ****** ******’* afford *** ****. *** ***** ***** that *********** ****** **** ****** *** records **** ** ******* ***** *** allowed *** ** *********** ** ********* which **** ** ****** ** **** before ******** * ***.***** *** ********** *** ********, *** man, ******* (*** *** ******** ***** ******* *** ******* *** ******* ***)***** ****** ****** ************** *** ********* ****** ********** *** ShotSpotter. ** ** ***** *******.

** ******** ****, * ********** ******* court*********** ********** ** * ****** ** assault **** * ****-********* ******* ******* Oakland *** ***** *****, ******* **** the “*********, *** **** *********** ********” that ** *** ***** * ****-********* gun *** * *********** *********. *** appeals ***** ***** *** ***** ***** erred “** ********* *** *********** ******** without ***** ********** ** *********** ******* to ****** *** ********** ***********” ***** Frye.

** * **** ** *******, *********** withdrew *********** ******** ******* * *** named ******* ********, *** *** ******* of * **** ******, ***** ** was ********** ** *** ***** ****.****’* ********* ** *** ****, ***** also ******** *********** **** *********** ******** changed ******** ***********, **** * ********** lawsuit **** ***********.

******** * ******** ***** ********* *** defamation ****, ************ **** ******* ** *** ******* reflecting **** ***** ********* ****** *** coordinates **** *** *******.

ShotSpotter’s ********

***********, ***** ******* ********* ** *** gunshot ********* ********** **********, ******** **** with ******** ** **** ** *** legal *********** ********* *****.** *** ****** ******* ****, “*********** evidence *** ***** ************ ******** *** admitted ** *** *****,” * ************ for *** ******* ****, ******* ****** that ******* *** ********* ********* ** a **** ** * ****** ** attempted ****** ** * ****** ******* but ***** ****** ** ******* *** possession.

“*** ********** *** *******, *** *** because ** *********** ********,” *** ************ said. “** *** ******* *** ***** of * ******* ***** *** *** enough ** ******* **. *******.”

********** *** ******* ****, *** ************ said *********** “******* ** ******* *** subpoenaed ********* ********* ** *** ******* case, *** *** ****** ********’* ****** made *** ******** *** ** *** ShotSpotter *** *** ******* ****** *** producing ********* ******** ** * ********, which ** *** **** ** **********.”*** ************ *****: “*** ********** **** elected *** ** ******* **** ********. The ********* *** ******** **** ******* in * **** ****** ****** *** introduce ****** ** *** ************* ** each **** *** *********** **** *** take * ***** ** ***** ******.”

** *** *** **** ********* ******* man ***** *****, ***********’* ************ **** IPVM: “** **** ********, *** ***** admitted *********** ******** *** *** ********* was *********. *** ********** ***** ** Appeals ******** *** ********** *** **** that *** ***** ***** ****** **** held * *****-**** *******, *** *** prosecutor *** ********* ********** ******* ** agreement ******** *** **** *** **** a *******.”

*** ********** ** *** ******** ****, which *** ** ***** ** *** Vice *******, *** *********** ************ **** that ***** ******* “***** **** *********** did *** ****** *** ******** ** the ******* ******* *** ****-**** ***** on *** ***** ** *** ******** and *** ***** ******** ******** ******.”

“******** ********** ********* **** *****, *** Associated ***** *** ******* ****** **** now ********* *** ************ ***** ***** that *********** ***** *** ******** ** the ******* ** ***** **. ******** for ******, *** **** ************ ***** Mr. ******** ******* ******** *** ******* had ********,” *** ************ *********.

*** *********** ************ *****: “*********** ** only ********** ** ****** ***** ***** outdoors, *** ****** * *** ** building, *** *** *********** ******** ** the ******** **** *** *** ******* the **********’* ****** **** **. ******** shot **. ******* ****** * ***. When *** ******* ******** *** ********** of ****, *** *********** ********* *** case. *** ***** ********* *** ** bearing ** ***********’* ********.”

Comments (16)

**** *********** *******. ***** ***.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

“************ ******” ******** ********* **** **** mugshot ********* *** ***** ********* **** used ** *** *********** **** ***** biometric ******** *** ****** ******* ****** of *****

**** *****'* **** ***** ** **. I ***** **** ********* * ********* talking ****** ** ***** ****** ** Biden.

** ************* ** **** ** ** less ******** *** (*.*. ****** *******) people ** ***** ******* ****** ** color ********************* *** **** **** ** ** algorithms - *** ***************.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

**** ** ** ******* ********** *** *********** ** ****** *********** within *** ******** ******* ******. ** ******* *** **************** *********** for ****** ** ***** *** ******** convictions. ** ********** *** ********* * larger ********** ** **********, ****** ******* databases *** ***** **** **** ****** of *****, ********** ********** ** ** *********.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

* *** *** ****.

*** ** **** ****** **** ***:

**** ** *** *********** **** ***** biometric ********

*.*. **** ***** **, **?

*** ** ****** ** ***** **** actually *************** ** *** **** **** by ** - ** *** ***** purports ********** ******* ********* - **** wouldn't **************** ******** * ******** ****** ** color ** *****************?

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

** ** **********, **** ***** ***** lead ** ***** *********, ***** *** FR ****** ** ******* ******* ** the ******** *** ** ** *** the ****** ***********. ************** ** **** on **********might **** ** "***********" ****** *** **** not ********* **** ***** *** **** in *** ********.

**** ******** ***** * ******** ** "racial *********" ***** *** ** "***** crimes" (**. ********** ** ***** ******* of ********** **********), *** ** ****** is **** ****** ** **** * skewed ****** ** ******** *****. ******* a ********, ***** %** ** *** total ********** ********** %** ** *** faces ** **. *****'* **** **** "racist" ** ***? * ***** **** is *** ******** ********** *** ****** to *****.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

**** ***** ***** **** ** ***** positives

**** '****' **** ****** **** ****** increase ********** ********.

********** **** ********* *** ** **** is ** *** ********* **** **** in ******/****** - ***** **** **** report ***** *********.

*** *** **********.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

***** ********** *** ******* ** ************* datasets, *** *********, **** *** *** continuously ********. ** ****** ******* ** me *** "**** '****' **** ****** will ****** ******** ********** ********".

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

**** '****' **** ****** **** ****** increase ********** ********

*'* *** ******* ***** ******* ******** or ************* ****** ********.

*'* ****** **** *** **** ***** data ****** ** ******* *******, *** higher *** ******** ** *** ** algorithm.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

*** ** ** **********, ** *** support *********** *** *** *********** ******** collecting ******'* *********** *** "**** ***** data ****** ** ******* *******"?

******** ********** ******** ** ******* "**** data *** ****** ********", ****** ******* the *********** ** ********* *** *** right ** ** *********, *** ***** the **** ** ***** *** ****** amendment **********, ***** **** *** ******** whoever **** **** **** ***** ***** without ********** *********** *********. **** ***** lead ** **** ***** ******* ** minorities, ***** ** ******* * *** issue.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

* ** * ******* ****** ** ACLU *** *** ******** - *** I ******* *** ********* *******.

** * *******, * **** *** fact **** ***** ** ** ********* on *** *** ** ********** **** harvests *** ** **, *** * can't ****** ****already **.

*** **** *** *** ***** **** banning *** ********** ** *** ******, but * ***'*. ********** *** *** is **** ********* *** - ******* Pandora's *** *** ******* **** ******.

*'** **** *********** ***** *** ****/**** tower ******** *** ***** *********** ********** is **** *** * ****** - right **** ** ****, *** * am ** *** ** ** *** the **** ******* *** *******, **** others.

*** ** *** *** ***** ** deploy ********** ******* *** ******, * think ******** ****** ** *********.

Agree: 2
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

****** *** *** ******** *****.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

** *** ** *** ***** ********** in ***** ** ******* * ****/******* inquiry, ***.

****/******* ******* ****** ******* ** *** the ********** ** ******** ** ******** (and ************* ************).

****'* **.

*******:

***** ** *** - **** ****** I ********** **** *********** *** ** actual ***** ** *** ** *** LE - **** *** ********** ****** will **** ****** ** *** ****/******* proceeding ******* ** ******** **** ******** sensors *** *********** ***** ******* ** identify ***** * *** *** *****.

***********, ** *****.

** *********** ***'* ****** ** ****/*******.

*******, **** *** ****** **** *** of ***** *******-********* ************** ** ******* *** *** ********* obfuscations **** **** ******** ***.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny
Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

*** ******** ** *** ********* ** that ***** **** ***** *** ******:

** **** **** *** ******** ******** for ****/********* *** *** ******* *** be ******** ** ******** *********** ** that ******** ******.

**** ********* ****** **** ** ******** face *********** ******** ** **** ************ and *** *********** **** *********** *********

***** ******* ********** *** **** ** 'skewed *******' ****** ** ***** ** FR *** - ******* **** ****'* accurate.

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

*** *** ******* **** *** **** FR ******** ******** ***-***** ****** *** under ***********.

**** **** ***** *** ******** ** matching ***** *** *** ***** *********** classes **** ******** **** *** ***** people, **** ** *** ****.

****, *** *********** ************* **** ***** upload ********* ** ******** **** *** FR ****** *** ******** ** ******* matches. ** **** ***** **** *** have ********** **** ******* ********, ***** are ******** ******* ********** *** ******* video ********* **** ************ *******.

*** ******* ******** ** ******** ******* to **************** ******* ** ****** ********* the ********** **** * ***** ********* to *** ******* ********* *** ****** is *** *** *******, *** *** be * ****** **** ***** ********** close. ******* *** ***** ** ***** from * *******, *** ******* **** then ********* **** ****** ** *** personal **** ** *** ****** ** the *******.

*** *****-***** ******** **** ****** *** officers ** ****** ** ******** * person *** ** *** ** *** way ******* ** *** *****. *** person *** ** ******** ** *** recent ******, ** ** **** ***** is ****** ** **** ***** ***** (eg: **** **********) **** ************ ** part ** *** ****** *** *********** sequence, ***** *** ***-******* ****** ** then ** ********* ** *** ***********.

*** ***** ***** ** * ***** situation, ** *** *** ******** ** the ****** ******* ** ****** *** lead ** ******* *** ********** ******, but ******* * ****** ** ****** that ***** *** **** ******** *** a *********** ** ********* *** **** brought **** *** *******.

** ***** *****, ******** ****** *** questioned *** ************** ** ******** ** part ** **** *******. *** ** course ** ****** **** *** ***** evidence **** ****** *** *** **** been ***** ** *********, *****, ****, or ********* ****** **** ******** *** testimonies ** ***** ** **** * conviction ****** * ****** *** ***** like * **** *** *** *********** ability.

**** *********** ** **** **** **** these **** ******* ** ******* *** enable ********** ********* **** *** ** the ******** ** ***** ***** *******.

***** *********** ***** ** ****** *** give *** * ********** ****** ** a *****, **** ****** ** *** have * *** ** ******** *** that ********** ****** *** ********** **** to ** ****** **** ** ******* for ***** ******* ******** ** * class ** *******. **** ***** ** officers ******** *** ****** *** *** results **** **** **** ******. *** causes ****** ********** **** *** *********** of *** ******* *** *** ********** them ** ***** ***** *********** ***** the *********** ** *** *******.

Agree: 1
Disagree
Informative: 2
Unhelpful
Funny

*****.

Agree
Disagree
Informative: 1
Unhelpful
Funny
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