Emerging Video Surveillance Guide 2009

Author: John Honovich, Published on Oct 09, 2009

This directory examines the benefits and risks of emerging video surveillance technologies for security managers and integrators. Special emphasis is placed on identifying the risks. They are regularly ignored yet critical to success of deploying emerging technologies.

Manufacturers Generally Assume Maturity

Manufacturer marketing generally assumes the emerging technology is already mature - thus focusing on all the potential benefits and little of the technological and operational risk involved. Whether this is driven by hope, ignore or malice is debatable. What is clear is that this assumption is dangerous for security managers and integrators.

Risks are Rarely Disclosed

The burden is regularly placed on end users and integrators to determine risks, which is inefficient and of questionable ethics.

Such risks generally falls in 3 types:

  • Technological risk: that is, the product simply does not work at a basic level. For instance, video analytics faces far higher technology risk than IP cameras. 
  • Usability/Integration risk: that is, the product has issues working with existing systems or processes of an organization. For example, many end users have video recorders that do not support IP cameras.
  • Cost: Generally the most obvious of the risks, manufacturers often downplay the costs involved and use best case scenarios in their cost comparisons.

Emerging Technologies

This directory examines ten emerging technologies. We define emerging technologies as those that are deployed by less than 20% of security users. The risks involved vary significantly amongst these technologies.

  • IP Cameras
  • Megapixel Cameras
  • IP Based Storage (NAS/SAN)
  • Storage On-Board IP Cameras
  • Mesh Wireless Networks
  • Panoramic Cameras
  • Video Analytics
  • Business Intelligence
  • Remote Video Monitoring
  • Managed Video / Hosted Video Surveillance
  • Physical Security Information Management
This directory is meant as a survey of key risks for the non-expert. Inside the directory, 19 other IP Video Market reports are referenced for further information and analysis on these technologies.

**** ********* ******** *** ******** *** ***** ** ******** ***** surveillance ************ *** ******** ******** *** ***********. ******* ******** ** placed ** *********** *** *****. **** *** ********* ******* *** critical ** ******* ** ********* ******** ************.

Manufacturers ********* ****** ********

************ ********* ********* ******* *** ******** ********** ** ******* ****** - **** ******** ** *** *** ********* ******** *** ****** of *** ************* *** *********** **** ********. ******* **** ** driven ** ****, ****** ** ****** ** *********. **** ** clear ** **** **** ********** ** ********* *** ******** ******** and ***********.

Risks *** ****** *********

*** ****** ** ********* ****** ** *** ***** *** *********** to ********* *****, ***** ** *********** *** ** ************ ******.

**** ***** ********* ***** ** * *****:

  • ************* ****: **** **, *** ******* ****** **** *** **** at * ***** *****. *** ********, ***** ********* ***** *** higher ********** **** **** ** *******. 
  • *********/*********** ****: **** **, *** ******* *** ****** ******* **** existing ******* ** ********* ** ** ************. *** *******, **** end ***** **** ***** ********* **** ** *** ******* ** cameras.
  • ****: ********* *** **** ******* ** *** *****, ************* ***** downplay *** ***** ******** *** *** **** **** ********* ** their **** ***********.

Emerging ************

**** ********* ******** *** ******** ************. ** ****** ******** ************ as ***** **** *** ******** ** **** **** **% ** security *****. *** ***** ******** **** ************* ******* ***** ************.

  • ** *******
  • ********* *******
  • ** ***** ******* (***/***)
  • ******* **-***** ** *******
  • **** ******** ********
  • ********* *******
  • ***** *********
  • ******** ************
  • ****** ***** **********
  • ******* ***** / ****** ***** ************
  • ******** ******** *********** **********
**** ********* ** ***** ** * ****** ** *** ***** for *** ***-******. ****** *** *********, ** ***** ** ***** Market ******* *** ********** *** ******* *********** *** ******** ** these ************.

[***************]

IP ******* (******** **********)

********* ********: *** **** ********* ********* ** ***** ** ******* is *** ******* ** ******** ******* ***** ******* ** ** IP ** ******** *******. ** ********, ****** ******* ******* *** use ** ** ********** ******** (******* ****** ** ******* ** DVR). ** ******* *********, ***** ** ******** *** ************* ****** the **** ** ************. ** *******, *** ******* *** ******** that ***** ***** ** ** ***********, *** **** ****** ** cameras **** ** **********.

****** ******* ** *****, ****** ********* ******** ** * ******* of ** *******, ** ****** *** ** ********* ******** ** today's ****. ******* *** **** ****** ******* *** **** ** IP *******, ***** *** ***** ** ****** ******** **** **** minor ********* ***********.

****: ** ******* ******* **** **%-**% **** **** ********** ****** cameras. ***** ***** *** ***** **** **** ***-*** ** ****** scale ******* ** **** ******* **** ****** ***** **** ***** distances.

  • ***-**** *****: ***** *** ********** ** ****** ******, *** **** risk **** ** ***********/*********** ******. **** #* ** **** ******** recorders ** *** ******* ** ******* ** **** ******** * very ******* ****** ** ** *******. **** #* ** **** the ******** ** ******* ** ***'* ******** ** ************ ** handle *** ** ******* (****** **** **** ** ****** **** to ******** ** **** **********). *** ******* ** ********** ***** risks, **** *** ***** *********** **** ****** ** **
  • ********** *****: **** ** ********* ****** ** ** **********'* ******** staff ** *** ********* **** ** ********* ** *******. **** traditional ********** ******** *******, ** ********** *** **** ** ********** to **** **** * ** * ****** ******* ** *********** (out ** * ***** ** ** - **). *******, **** IP *******, * *** ******* ********** **** ******* ** ****** to ******* ***** ************/******* **********.
 

Megapixel *******

********* ********: *** *** **** *********** ******** *** (*) ******** the ****** ** ******* ******** *** (*) ********** *** ******* of *** *****, ******* ** ******* *************** ** ********/*********. **** benefits ****** **** *** ************* ****** ********** ** ********* ******* (compared ** *** ****** ******* *** ******** ********** ** *******.)

****** *** ********* **********, ** ********* ** * ****** ** IP *******, *** ******** *** ***** ** ********* ******* ******** those **** ** *******.

  • ***-**** *****: *** *** ******* ***** *** (*) ********* ****** to ********* ***** ******* *** (*) ******* ***********. ***** ******* will ***** **** ********* ******* ******* *, ** ** **** 81 ***** ******* **********. ***** **** ** '***********' ******* **** comparing ********* ***** *****, **** ** ********* *** ********** ******* of * ********* *******. (*) ******** ******* *** ** ****** in ********* ********* ***** *** ********* ******'* ******* ********** **** covers * ****** **** (***** **'* * ****** ******** ******). Often, **** ** '********' *** * ***** ****. (*) ******* at ***** ****** (*.*., *.*** *** ******** ********** **. ***) is ************* **********. **** ********* ******* ******* **** ****** ********* in ******* ******* - ********** **** ***. (*) ** *** light **********, *** ********* ******* ********** ***** ************ - ** the ***** ***** * ********* ***** ******* ******** ** ******* visible ******* **** * ******** ********** ******. ************, ********* ******* generally ******* ************* **** *******. ** **** *****, **** ** simply * ****** ** ****** *** ********** **** ** *******. However, *** ********** ******* ****** *** ** ** ***** **** a ********* ******* ******* *** **** ** ** **** (*** IP ***** ******* *****).
  • ********** *****: ****-******* *** ******* ** ********* ******* ** *** most *********** ****. ** ** ****** **** *** **** ** megapixel ******* **** ** ***** ** ****** ******** *** ***** number ** ******* ** *** ********* ******** ******* (*.*., ******'* face ** ***'* ******* ******). *********** ****** ** ******* ***** testing ****** ****** *********** ********* *** ***** *********, ** **********.
 
 

IP ***** ******* (***)

********* ********: *********** ***** ************ *********** ******* ***** ********** ******** and **** ****** ****** * ****** ********* (******* * ***). In ****** *******, **** *** ******* ** ******** ** **** drives ****** ** ****** ** ****. **** *** ** ********* to ******, *********** *** ********* ** *******. ****, **** ***** do *** ******* ********** *** *******.

** ***** ******* ******** *********** ******* ******** **** ***** *****-** redundancy *** ****** *********. **** ***** ******** ********* ************ ***** from *** ******** ** *** ******* *******. **** **** ******* wasted ******* ** *** ***** ** '******' ** * ******* repository.

****: *** ****** ******* (** *** ** ****), ** ***** storage ** ***** ******* **** ******* ****** ** ****. *******, the ******* ***** *** ********** * *** ***** **** ** significantly **** ********* ****** ****** ** ***** **** ***** ****** a ***. *** ********, **** ******* ***** ** $*,*** ***, far **** **** *** *********** **** ** ****** * *** hard ****** ****** **** ** ****.

  • ***-**** *****: ******* **** ** ***** ***. **** **** ** not ******* ******** ******* (******* ** * ******** ****** ****** than * ********* ***********) ** **** ****** ** *******. ***** a *** **** ** ****** **** ** ******* ** ******** DVRs (*********** *** ****** ** *** ***** *******) *** ** a *******. ************, ** ** ********* *** ******** ** *** a *** ** ***** ***** **** ****** *******/********. **** ** due ** ******* *** ****** ********* ********** ********** (*** *********).
  • ********** *****: ******* ** * *** (********* ** *** ******) can ** ************* **** *********** **** ******* **-***** ****. ** least * ****** ** ***** ****** ** ******* ** ********** and *********** *** ***.
 
 

Storage **-***** ** *******

********* ********: **** ****** ********* **** ******* ** ********** *********. In ***** *********, ******** **** ***** *** ** ******** *** recorded ******** *** ** ********* (** ****** *** ********). ******* storage ****** ** ** ** ****** *** ********* **** *******. Of ******, **** ******* ********** **** ** ****** ** ******** view/download ****** *****. *******, **** **** **** **** ** ** done ************.

****: ***** ******* ***** ***** ************,***** *** **** ** **-***** storage ** *** ****** **** ********* ******* ***** ** **** drives. ********, *** **** ***** ************ ************, ** ** ****** not ******** ** ****** ***** ***** **-***** ** ******* ** it ** *** *********** ******** (**** *** ********* ** * vendors ********** **** ****** ****** ** ******** ** ***** *******).

  • ***-**** *****: ***** **-***** ******* *** ***** *********** ** *** length ** ******* ** *** ******* ** ******* (******* ** limitations ** *** **** ***** *** ** ****** ****** *** camera). ************, **** *** ******* ** *** ******* ****** ******** of ***** ******** ** ** ** ******. **** ***** **** it ********* ** ****** *** *** **** *****.
  • ********** *****: ** *** **-***** ******* ****** ** ******** ******** using *** ******** *** ********, *** ********** *** ** ****** for ********** ******* *****. **** ******* **** ******* * ********** physically ****** *** **-***** ******* ***** ****** **** ******* *********** raw ***** *****. 
 
 

Mesh ******** ********

********* ********: ***** ************ ** ***** ****** ** ***** **** are ****** **** *********, **** ** ** ******* **** *** along **********. ******* ******* ******* *** ** **** *********** ********* expensive *** ********** *********.

** ******** ******* ***** * **** **** *********** ** ******** video ** ***** ****. **** ******** ******* (* *********** **** of ** ********) ***** ***** ** ** *********** ****** ****** distances *** ****** ***** ** ************ (**** *****, *****, ***.).

*****: ******** ** **** ******** ***** ****, **** ******** ** generally ************* **** *********. **** ** ***** $*,*** *** *** wireless ****, ******** ** *** **** ********* **** ****** *** form ** ********* ****** ***** ** ********.

  • ***-**** *****: ******* ** *** ********* ********, ********* ******** ******* for ***** ************ ******* *********** *********. ** *** ***** ** not ****** *********** ***********, *********** ****** *** *****. ************, ***** exist ** *** **** **** *********** ** *** ****** (** environmental ** ***** ******* *** ******* ***********). ** ** ********** that ********* ****** *** **** **** *********** ** *** ****** or ***** ******* ****** ***** *****.
  • ********** *****: ********* ******** ***** ************ ******** *** ** *** single **** ********* ********* **** ** *** ** ***** ************ (even ****** **** ***** *********). ******** ******* ********* ********* ** both ** ******** *** ******** *******. ***********, ******** ******* *** be ******** ** ******** ******* **** ** *** ******* *** nearby ******** ***** (******* **** ******* *** ******* ****). *** specific ***** ***: (*) ******* **** ** *** ******* ** much ********* ** *** ********** ***** *** ******** *** (*) ongoing ********* ******** **** *** ****** **** ****** ********* ******* calls.
 

 

Panoramic *******

********* ********: ** ***** **** ***** ***** ******** * ** 4 *******, ****** ******* *********** ******** ******* *** **** ***** a ***** **** ** ******* ** * ******** (*** ** lens *** ********** ************).

********* ******* ********* ******* ********* ********** *** ***** **** ***** lenses ** ******* *** ****** ******** **** * ****** ******** camera.

****: ***** * ****** ********* ****** ***** **** **** * single ***** *********** ****** (***** * -* ***** ****), *** savings **** ********* ******** *********** ******* ******* ********* *** ********** cost. 

  • ***-**** *****: *** *** *** ***** *** (*) ****** ******* achieved *** (*) *********** **** ***'* ******** ******. ******* ***** cameras ***** **** * ***** ****, *** ********** ** *** camera ** ****** ****. ** ****, *** ********* ***** ******* of ***** ******* *** ***** ***** **** * *********** ***** camera **** * ******** **** ***** ****. ***** ****** ** aware ** **** *** **** *** ****** ** *** ***** desired ***** ** ******* ** ****** **** ****** ********** ** sufficient. ********, ********* ******* *** *** ********* ** **** *** systems *** ***** ** ** **************** ******* ********* ******* ** panoramic *******/******. ** *** ***** ******* *** ***** *** *** of * *********** ** (** *****) ******* *** ** *** systems.
  • ********** *****: *********** ********** ** *** ******* ****. ** *********** do *** *** ********* ************ ** ******** ***** *******, *** users ***** ******** ** ****** *** *******.
 
 

Video *********

********* ********: ***** ********* *** ***** *** ******** **** **** benefit *** ***** ************.

** *********** ******** ** **** ****, ***** ********* *** **** stop ****** ** ********. **** *** ** ************ ******* * variety ** ***** ** ********* ********* ******** ** ****** ** restricted *****, ******** ********** ** ********* *** ** ******** ****** of ****.

** ********** ****** **** * ****** ** ****, ***** ********* can **** ***** ************** *** ******* *********** ** ******. *** instance, ********* ******* ***** ******* ** ***** *** ** ******** by ********* **** ***** ***** ****** *** *******. 

*****: *** ****** **** ** ****** ***** ******** ******** ** moderately ********* *****. *** *** ****** ******* ** ** ******* no **** **** $*** *** *** ****** (*** **** *******) and ***** **** ***** $*** ***. *** ***** ** ******** the ******** *** ****** *** ********* ** ******* *** ** significantly **** *********.

  • ***-**** *****: *** ******* **** ** *** ***** ** **** the ***** ********* ****** ** ********* ** ********* ************ **** because ** *********** ***********. ************, *** ***** *** **** **** adjustments **** **** ** ** **** ** ****** *********** ** lighting *** ** *********** ** ************ **********. ***********, *** ***** must ********* **** ***** ** ***** ****** **** **** ******* and ******* ** *** **** *** ****** ****.
  • ********** *****: ***** ********* **** **** ** **** ******** ************ can **** ******** ************ *** ********* ******** *************. *********** ****** be **** ******* ** ******* ***** ********* *** ******* *********** expectations **** *** *****.
 
 

Remote ***** **********

********* ********: ****** *** ************ ***** ** *** ********* **** **-**** (major ********** ******* ****** ********* *** *******). *** **** *************, it ** **** ** *********** ******* ********* ** ***** ************ video ************ (*** ***** **** ** ***** **** * ******** ******** hundreds ** *******).

****** ***** ********** ** * ******* **** ****** * ***** party ** ***** **** ************ *****. ******* *** ***** ***** monitors * ***** ****** ** *********, **** *** ***** ***** costs **** ** *** *** ** ********. *** '**** *****' of ****** ***** ********** ** ** *** ***** ********* ** identify *** **** ****** *******, ********** *** ************* ** *** monitoring.

****: ***** *** **** ******* ** *** **** *** ********* of **********, *** **** ** ****** ****** *** **** **** staffing ***'* *** ******. ** ****, **** **** ** ****** a ******* ** *** *** ** ****** ***** **********.

  • ***-**** *****: *** ***** **** ***** *** (*) *** ************* of *** ***** ********* **** *** (*) *** ****** *******'* support ** ** ************'* ******** ***** ************ ****** *** (*) information ******** ***** ** ******** ****** ******. *** ***** ****, on ***** *********, *** **** ********* ** *** ********* *******. The ****** **** ** * *** ********* *****. ***** ******, most ****** ********** ****** ** *** **** **** ** ************'* existing *********/*******. **** ********* ******** *** ******** ** ********** ******** and, ** **** *****, ********* ******** *******. *******, ********* ******* provide *** ****** ** ***** ******** ******* *** *** ****** monitors ** ********* * ********* ******* (**** * ********* ***** modem/DSL ****). *** ***** *** ** ******* ** ****** ***** the ****** ***** *** * *********** ******* *** (********** ** this ** ** ** **** ****** ******** *********** *********).
  • ********** *****: ******* ** *** ******* **** ** ***** *********, the ********* **** ** ****** ********** **** ** ** ***.
 

Managed ***** / ****** ***** ************

********* ********: ******* *** ****** ***** *** ****** *** **** *** complexity ** ********* ***** ************ ******* ** *********** **** ** *** on-site *****. ****** *****, ** **********, **** ********** *** ********** ** a ***** ******** **-**** (******* *** ***** ******** **** *** ****** to *** ****** ***** *******).

*****: **** ****** ***** ********* ****** $** *** - $** USD *** *****. *** **** **** * *** ******* *** ****, the ********* ****  **** * * **** ****** *** ** significantly ****** **** ********** * ***/********.

  • ***-**** *****: *** ********* ***** **** ** ** *** (** this ** **** ** * *** ******** ***** **** * radical *** **********). **** ** *********** ***********, *******/****** ***** ********* generally ***** **** ***** *************** (*.*. **** ** **** ***** ********* or *** ***** ***********). *** **** **** ***** ** ****** *************** that *** ** ********* *** ***'* *********. **** * ******/********* viewpoint, ****** ************* *** ** ********* ***** *** ******** **** of ********* ***** **** ** ***** ***'* **** ** ******** video.
  • ********** *****: *** ******** ***** ** *** **** ******** *******. While ***** ******** *** ******* ********** ********* *******, *** ********** designed **** ***** ******** ******* *** ***** *** **** *** security ***********. ******, ** ** ****** **** *** **** ********** managed/hosted ***** ********* **** *** *** *** ******** ******* ********** as * *********** *********.
 
 

Physical ******** *********** **********

********* ********: ***** ************* ***** *** ******** ******** ******* (*.*., ****** *******, intrusion *********, ****, ***.). ************, **** ************* *** ******** ******* *** some security ******* (*** ********, **** **** ***** *** ********* ******). The ******* ** ********* ***** ******* ******** **** * ****** ********** whole ** *********.

***********, ********** ******** ******* *** ***** *** ********* *** ******* ******** response (*.*., ************ **********, ******** ********, ******* *******, ***.)

**** ******* *** ******** ** ******* **** ** ***** ********. PSIM ** * ******** ****** **** ********** ******* ******** *******, ********* a ******* ***** *** ** ********** *********. **** **********: **** ******* generally **** ******** ** ********* ** ******, *** **** ********* **** the **** ******** *** ***** ********** *********** ** *********** ***** one's ****** ******* ******.

  • ***-**** *****: *** ***** ****** ** ******* **** *** **** system ***** ******** ***** ******** ******** *******. **** **** ****** carefully ******** *** ************ ** ***** *** **** ****** ******** to *** ******** ********** ******* ********. **** ******* ****** ******* PSIM ******* ***** ** *** ******* ******* ********* ** ********** security *******. *** ********, **** ******* ********* ******* ********* ***** by **** *** ***** ** *** ******* ********* ** ****** or ******** *********.
  • ********** *****: ************ *** ******** **** ******* *** ** **** time ********* *** **** * **** ** ****-**** ********** ******. Not **** *** **** ******* *** '**** *** ****', **** security ******* *** *** ** *********. ***********, ******* *** ******* may ***** ** *** ******. ***** ******** ***** ********** ** risk *** **** ******** *** ******** ******* *****.
 
***** ****:**** ********
Login to read this IPVM report.
Why do I need to log in?
IPVM conducts unique testing and research funded by member's payments enabling us to offer the most independent, accurate and in-depth information.

Related Reports

FLIR Restructures Security Division on Aug 22, 2017
FLIR's goal was once to have a single end-to-end security solution. However, FLIR's Security business unit has been struggling, with several areas...
Honeywell Total Connect 2.0 Tested on Aug 22, 2017
Honeywell is one of the biggest brands in security, with Total Connect 2.0 being the company's remote security and smarthome platform. We bought...
Dahua 4K IR PTZ Tested on Aug 21, 2017
4K has made its way to IR PTZs. In this report, we examine the Dahua 6AE830VNI, a 4K PTZ with 30x optical zoom, 200m (~650') integrated IR, and...
Top Used License Plate Capture Cameras on Aug 21, 2017
Capturing license plates is a common video surveillance application. But what cameras do integrators mostly commonly used? Special purpose LPC...
Sony Next Gen HD Dome Camera Tested (SNC-EM642R) on Aug 18, 2017
Sony has released their latest generation, claiming improved WDR and low light, increased IR range, and more. We tested the SNC-EM642R outdoor IR...
IP Networking Course September 2017 on Aug 17, 2017
This is the only networking course designed specifically for video surveillance professionals plus it includes live training, personal help and...
Directory Of Consumer Security Cameras on Aug 16, 2017
The consumer camera segment continues to grow, with new startups and models from existing players released seemingly every month. In this report we...
Cat 5e vs Cat 6 vs Cat 6a Network Cable Usage Statistics on Aug 16, 2017
Cat 5e? Cat 6? Cat 6a? What do integrators use in practice, today? 140+ integrators told IPVM. Here are the results: For those who want to...
Stolen Video NVR / DVR Statistics on Aug 15, 2017
"But what happens if someone steals my recorder?" Anyone who has done more than a handful of jobs has probably heard this question several times....
Hikvision Europe Cutting Out Unauthorized End User Sales on Aug 15, 2017
The days of anyone buying Hikvision from anywhere off the Internet are numbered, at least in Europe, if Hikvision's plan comes to fruition. In...

Most Recent Industry Reports

Dahua 4K IR PTZ Tested on Aug 21, 2017
4K has made its way to IR PTZs. In this report, we examine the Dahua 6AE830VNI, a 4K PTZ with 30x optical zoom, 200m (~650') integrated IR, and...
Top Used License Plate Capture Cameras on Aug 21, 2017
Capturing license plates is a common video surveillance application. But what cameras do integrators mostly commonly used? Special purpose LPC...
VLAN For Video Surveillance Usage Statistics on Aug 21, 2017
VLANs (see our tutorial) are an option for networks using video surveillance, but how often are they actually used? 125+ integrators told us how...
Avigilon CEO Attacks Asian Companies Cyber Insecurity on Aug 18, 2017
Avigilon CEO is taking aim at their Asian competitors. And he is going directly after these company's cyber security issues. In this note, we...
Sony Next Gen HD Dome Camera Tested (SNC-EM642R) on Aug 18, 2017
Sony has released their latest generation, claiming improved WDR and low light, increased IR range, and more. We tested the SNC-EM642R outdoor IR...
IP Networking Course September 2017 on Aug 17, 2017
This is the only networking course designed specifically for video surveillance professionals plus it includes live training, personal help and...
Knightscope Raises $10 Million With $3,320 Average Per Investor on Aug 17, 2017
Congrats to Knightscope. And condolences to their legion of little investors. Knightscope has disclosed they have raised $10+ million from their...
Axis and Arecont Legal Conflict Over Multi-Imager Cameras on Aug 17, 2017
Arecont threatened Axis. Axis has responded by moving to invalidate an Arecont patent. It is an important contest. Multi-imagers are Arecont's...
Directory Of Consumer Security Cameras on Aug 16, 2017
The consumer camera segment continues to grow, with new startups and models from existing players released seemingly every month. In this report we...
Cat 5e vs Cat 6 vs Cat 6a Network Cable Usage Statistics on Aug 16, 2017
Cat 5e? Cat 6? Cat 6a? What do integrators use in practice, today? 140+ integrators told IPVM. Here are the results: For those who want to...

The world's leading video surveillance information source, IPVM provides the best reporting, testing and training for 10,000+ members globally. Dedicated to independent and objective information, we uniquely refuse any and all advertisements, sponsorship and consulting from manufacturers.

About | FAQ | Contact