Access Control Credentials 101

By Aiden Gonzalez, Published Jul 08, 2022, 09:59am EDT (Info+)

Credentials come in many shapes, sizes, and specifications. This 101 guide examines the basics of access control credentials used in 2022.

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In this report, we review the basics of credentials, including:

  • What a credential is
  • Credential types
  • Radio frequency options
  • Multiple credentials/MFA
  • Range
  • Choosing credentials
  • Overview of major credential providers / manufacturers

What ** * **********?

* ********** ** ** **** **** authenticates *** ****** *** ****** ** a ******* ****. ***** *** ***** basic ******** ** *********** ** ********** access *******: ***********, *****, *** **********.

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Credential *****

*********** *********** *** *** **** ******** used,**** ****** ********** ********** ********* ** ***** ************, according ***** **** ****** **********:

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***********

*********** *********** ******* ** ***** ********* waves ********* ** * ******, ****** in ****** *** *********** ***** ********** information **** ** *** ******. ***** are ******* **** *******, *** **** all *** **** ** *********** **** the ****** ******* ****** *******.

** ******* *****, **** ******, *** non-proprietary ******* (*.*. ******* *** ***) are **** ********* **** *****, ****-********* (13.56 ***), *********, *********** ******* (*.*. HID ****** ****), ***** ** ** ten ***** **** *********. ********, *** to ****** ***** ******, *** ******** driven ****** ****** *** **** ****** high-security *******, *** ********* ***** *** uncommonly ********* ** *******.

  • *****/******: ****, ******** ******* ***** *** a ****** ****** **********. ******** ******* hotel ******** ** ****** ******* ******. They *** ********** ***********, ******* *** card **** ****** $*.** *** ******** Prox ***** ** $*.** ***** **.***** smart *****, ********* ** *** ****** needed.
  • **********: ******* *** **** ***** **** cards, ********** *** ******** ** **** rougher ********** **** ***** ***** ***** being **** ********* **** *****, **** durable **** *******. ********* *********** ***** widely ** ***** ********* ** ***** characteristics. * ******* ***** ** $*.** to $*.** *** *****, ********* ** the **** ******* ****** *** ************.
  • *** ****: *** **** *** ********* produced ** ****** ***** ***** **** and ***-******* ************, *** ** * result *** ******** ** ** ***** durable. ******* ******* *** *** **** ranges **** $*.** ** $*.** *** fob, ********* ** *** **** ******* format.
  • ********/******: ******* **** ******* *** ** applied ********** ** ***** *******. * common *** **** *** **** **** factor ** ******** * ******* ** a *** ********** ** ********** ******** through ******* *****. ******* ******* ******* on *** ******** ******* **** ** the ******, ******* **** **** **********, single-use ******** ******** ** $*.** *** long ***** ******** ******** ** **** for ***** ****** *** ****** $**.**.

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Radio *********** ******

*** *** **** ******* ***** *********** for *********** *********** *** *** *** and **.** ***. *** **** ********* difference ******* *** *** *********** ** security. *** *** ******* *** *** encrypted *** ** ********* *******/******* **** *********** *******. **********, **.** *** ******* *** encrypted *** ********** **** *** **** be **** ** * ****** **** is ************ ***** *** ********** *** to ** ** *** ** *** easily *******/*******.

* **********'* ********* *** *** ** visibly *******, *** *** ****** ******* the ********* ****. ****** ****** ****** frequencies *** ****** *****:

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Contactless **********

*********** *********** ******* ****** **** ****** control ******* ******* * **** *******. That ****** ** **** ****** ** a ********* ** *** **********. **** the ********* ** ****, ** ********** its ********** **** ******* ** ********** circuit ("**") ****. *** ***** ***** shows * *****-******* ** * ******** credential **** **** ***** ***** *******:

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** *********, *** *********** **** *********** work ** **** ***. ************, *** size, *********, **********, *** ****** ** the **** **** ******* ******* ********** types.

Mobile ***********

****** *********** ***** * **** ** flash ***** ***** ** ******** * mobile *** ** *** ***** ****** to ************. *** ******* ********** ** mobile *********** ** **** ** ********* a ****** **** ***** ******* ******* and *** *** ****** ** ****. The ******** ** **** ** * card ****** ** ** *********, ********* can ******* *** ****** ******* * cheap ***** ** *******, ******* ** a ***** ****** ** **** ****, someone **** *** ******** ** ******* for **** ***********.

****** *********** *********** **** ******* *** Bluetooth *** ****** (***) ** **** Field ************* (***).

********* *** ******

*** ********* ***** **** **** **** can ** ** ** *** **** from ** *******, ****** ******** ********** caps *** ***** ** ** **** to **** ******* ************ ****** ****** the **** **** ****** ** **** through.

*********, **** **** *** *********, * user **** ** ********* ** **** through * **** *** ************* ****** it ** ******* ****** *****, *********** allowing ** ************ ****** ** *****. Although **** ****** ******* **** ********* their *** ******* ** ******** **** issue, ***** ************* ******* ***** ******** features. *** ** **** ***** ** sporadic ************ ********.

**** ***** *************

*** ** **** ****** ********* *** mobile ****** **** ***. ***'* ********* range ** *"-*", **** ******* **** BLE, ******* ** ****** *** *********** of ************ ****** ** *** **** between ****** ** **** *******. ************, much **** *********** **** ***********, *** uses * **** **** ***** ***** from *** ******. ******** *** ******** power ** ************ ** *** ***** to ***** ** * **********, **** chip ****** *** *********** ** ******* as *** **** ******** ******* **********, even **** *** ******'* ******* ** drained.

*** *** ********** ******* *** **** is *** *** ***** ************* ******* standard *** ***************, ***** ******** *** is ****** ******* *** ********* ** most *************. *** *******, ***** (***** of ****** *** *** *******) ******** a ***-******** ************** ** ***, ** most ***-***** ****** *********** *** *** supported. *******, ***** ******** ********* ** is ******* *** ***-******** *** ****** to ******, *** ****** ********* *** developing ***** ****** ****** ***************.

****** *************

*** ****** ************* ***** ******* *** need ** ** ******** ***** *** incur ********** *****. ** **** ******** the **** ** ********* * ******, some *************, **** ********* *** *******, offer ***-** ******* *** ******** *******.

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Biometric ***********

********* *********** *** * **** ** the ****'* **** ** ************ ***** access. ********** ********* ******* ****** ******** than *********** *********** ****** **** ******* deploying *********** ******* **** ************* ******** the **** ** *** ******. ****** contactless ***********, ********** ****** ** ********* or ****** **** ************ *****.

********* ************** ** ********* ****** **** contactless ** ****** ***********, ********** **********. This ***** ********** ********* * **** fit *** ****-******* ********. ******* ******* with ********* *********** ** ********** *** storing ******** *********** **** ************.

**** ************ ********* ********* ******* ******* fingerprints, **********, **** ***********, *** ****/****** scans.

  • ************: ************ *** * ****** ********* credential. *********** ******** *** ********* ******* or ******* *** *** ******* ** capture *** ****** ******** ** *******. Sensors ********* **** ****** * ******* number ** ******, ******** *** ******** of *** ****. ** * ******, many ******* **** ************ ************ ** so ** *** ** ******** ********** requirements/options.
  • *********** ************: ****** ******* *********** *******, contactless ******* *** ** *****-**** ********** image ** ************ ************. **** ** typically **** ****** **** *********** *******, increasing **********.
  • **********: ****** ************, ****** ***** **** a ********* ***** ** *** ******, authenticating *** **** **** *** ******* of ***** ***** ***** ****, ****** than *** ******* ***** ** *** surface.
  • *********: ********** *** * ****** ** scan *** ******* ** * ****'* hand, ******** *** ******* ** ***** palm ** * ********** ******** *****.
  • ********: *********, ** ******** **** **********, take * ********* ***** ** *** hand, ***** *** ***** ***** *** skin ** ************ * ****, ****** than *** ******* *****.
  • **** ***********: **** *********** **** * camera ** ************ ***** **** ** image ** ***** ****. *** ******** of **** *********** ** ****** ********* on ***** *** ***** ************* *******, particularly ****** *****-** **** ***** **** commonplace. * ****** ******** ** **** recognition ** **** ** ** ********* with *** ************, *** ****** ** typically ******** ** ** ****** *** to *** ******, ********* **** ***** to ***** ** ************ ***** ****. Additionally, ** *** **** ** ******** impaired, **** *** *** ** **** to *** ****** ******* ** ********** position ***** **** *** ********. ***** factors ******** ********** *** *** * negative ********** *** *****.
  • ****/******: ****/****** **** * ****-********** ****** to ***** ***** ** *** ***. Similar ** **** ***********, ******** ******* on ***** *** ***** ************* *******. As **** **** ***********, ****/****** ******** are ******** ** ** ***-*********, ***** requiring **** ** ** ****** *** to *** ******, ********* ***** ** stoop ** ***** ** ************ ***** eyes.

Multiple ***********/***

*********** ************** (***) ******** *** ** more *********** ** ******* ****** *** probability ** ************ ******.

*** **** ******** ** ** ******* at ***** *** ********* ******* ** the ***** ********** *****:

  • ********* *** **** ***: * ******** ********** ***** ** the ****. ********* ** ****** ******* badge, *****, ** ***. **** *** also ******* * ********** ***, ********** ID, ** ********.
  • ********* *** **** *****: ********* * **** ** ******** is **** ******* ** *** ****. Commonly * ***, *** **** ******** also ******** '******** *********' ** '**** 4 ** ****** ******** ******' *************.
  • ********* *** **** **: ********* ******** **** *** **** is **** ** *******. ********* ****** or **** ****** *** ****, *** other ******** *** ******** ********* **** recognition *** ******/**** *****.
  • ******* ******* ******** *** ****: ***** ******* **********, ******* ***** positively *** *** ******* *** *** user. **** ***** ** * ****** guard ** **** * ************ **** grants ****** ***** ** ***********.

******** *** ********* *** ******** ** the ******, ***** *** *********. *********, the **** ** ************ **** **** is ********* ******* *** ****** **** individually ***** **** ********** ** *** user. **** ** ******* ******** ** MFA *******. ***** * *********** ********** as * ****** ****** **** ** the **** ** *** **********, *** MFA ******* ********** *** ********* **** expensive **** ******-****** ******* ($*** - $1,000 **** **** * ******-****** **** which **** ******* $*** - $***).

*****

*** ****** ************** ***** ********** **** factors ** ***** **** *****. *** credential **** ***** *** **** ****** is ********* *** * ****** *** consideration, ** ***** **** ****** ****** of * **** ****** ** **** entry. *******, *** ************ **** ******* garages, *****, **********, ** ***** *** reader ******** ** * *********** ******** from *** *******, * ****** ***** can ** ** ********* ******.

******* ****** *** **** ********** ** reader ******, *** ** *******, *** read ********* *** **** ********** **** are:

  • *** ***: ********* ** ****** ** less
  • **.** ***: ********* * ****** ** less
  • ***: ********* ** **** ** ****
  • ******/***: ********* ** **** ** ****, but ********** *** ***** ~*** ****.
  • **** ***********: ********* ** ****** *** readers ******* ** ** ***-******** ******* height ** **" **** *** ******
  • ***********/********** ********* ******* ******** *** ******

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Selecting * ********** - ******** *******

******* ******* *** ********* ******* ** the ********** ***** **** *** ******** to ****, ******* * ******* *** credential **** ** ******** ****** *** 'greenfield' *******, ***** ***** ** *** a ****** ********* ** ***** ** you *** *********** *** ****** ********.

** * ******, *** ********** *********** frequently ****** ** ******** *******' ************. Reader ************ **** ********** *** **** pose * ********* *** ********** ***** that ******* ****** ****** *****, **** as **** *******.

Common *** *****

** **** **** ******* **** ******* of *********** ******* ****** **** ****** in ******* **********. ** ******* *** following *********** ********** ***** ** *** field **********:

  • ******* ***: ***** *** ***** *** facilities **** **** ******* ******* ***. Easily **** *** ***********, **** * low **** ** ***** *** ***********. Printed ****** *** ********* ** ********** or ********, *** **** ***** ******** behind * ***** ********** ******.
  • ***** ***: ********** *** ***** *** workers ** *** ***** ** *****. Durable ************ **** *** **** ** break ******. *** ********* ******** ***** well.
  • ********* ************: *** **** *** *** best ****** *** ****** ********* ** abusive ************. ********* ** ***** ** thermal *****. *** ***** **** ***** pocket ******* ****.
  • ******* *******: ** ***** ** ******* & **** ***** ****** ****** ********, in **** ******* ****** ************ *********** readers *** *********** **** ** ********** by ***-***** ** ****-***** ********, ** windshield ******** *** ****** ****** ******* choices.

Overview ** ********** *********

*** ***** ****** ***** ** ********** providers *** ********, ******, *** **********.

********

*************, *** ******* ************* ** ******* also *** ******* ** ******** ***********. Two ************ **********, *** *** ***, produce *** ******** ** ******** ***********. Other ******* ******* ******* ********/*******, ********* Data, *** ********. ** **** *****, proprietary ********** ******* ** ****** *********** require **** *** *********** *** ******* to ***** ******* *** ********** ****, and ******** **** **** *** **** vendor ***** ********** *** ** *** more ******* ******* ** ****** *************.

******

*** ***-***** ***********, *** *** ** vendors ******** ********* **** **** **** physical *********** ********* ***, ********* ****, and ********. *******, ******* ****** *********** are * ***** ********** ************ ** ****** ******* ***********, ****** entrants **** ******** *** ******* *** able ** ******* ** ******* ****** credentials ** ***** ******* ********** ******** and ********** ******** *********** **** ** a ********* ******.

**********

***** ********* *********** *** ***** ** human ****** ****** **** ********* ********, vendors ** ******* **** ******** ********** typically ******* ******** *********** **** *********** and ****** *****, ** **** ** specialized *******. ** * ******, *** biometrics ****** ** ****** ***********, ******** the ********* ********* ** ****** ******* giants **** ***. ******* ******* ******, Invixium, *********, *******, *** ******.

Test **** *********

**** ****** ******** *********** *** *******.

Comments (2)

**** ******* *** * ******* *****'* a **** ****** ** ****** ******* but ****** * **** ** *** on *** ********* *** ******** **** would ** * ****** ***** ********.

Agree: 2
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny

***** *****. ****** *** *** *******!

"******** *****" *** ** ********* ** some ******* *** *** ****** **** 125 *** ******* (*** **** ***** frequencies/types), *** **** *** *** ****** differentiated ** * ***** *****. **** copied, ***** ******** ***** *** ****** along **** *** ***** **** ****, so ** ***** ** ** **** protection - ** ** **** ** one.

**** **** *** ********* - **** issue *** ** ****** ********, **** regards ** *** ************ ** ***** a *** ** ******* ** * credential ******, *** **** **** ** excludes ***/***** **** ** ****** ** secure ******* ** *** **** ** is ****** **** **.** *** *** Phone/Mobile *******.

** **** ***** ****** *******, ** excluded **** ****.

**** **** ****?

Agree
Disagree
Informative
Unhelpful
Funny
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