Bandwidth Tutorial for IP Video Surveillance Systems

Author: John Honovich, Published on Jan 07, 2012

When using IP cameras and video management systems, understanding the basics about bandwidth availability and demands is critical to planning, designing and deploying systems. Everyone in the industry should have an understanding of the basics as bandwidth is a critical factor in video surveillance

This article is focused for a non-IT audience such as security managers, electronic technicians, sales and marketing folks. I am purposely ignoring details and edge cases to help a broader audience better understand the basics.

[UPDATED: This is a 2012 revision of the original article from 2008 that reflects changes in IP camera usage.]

How Much Bandwidth is Available?

To determine bandwidth availability, you first need to determine what locations you are communicating between. Much like driving, you will have a starting point and destination. For example, from your branch office to your headquarters. However, unlike driving, the amount of bandwidth available can range dramatically depending on where you are going.

The most important factor in determining how much bandwidth is available is whether or not you need connectivity between two different buildings. For instance:

  • In the Same Building - Lots of Bandwidth: 70Mb/s to 700 Mb/s of bandwidth is generally available
  • Between Different Buildings - Scarce Bandwidth: 0.5 Mb/s to 5 Mb/s of bandwidth is generally available

The amount of bandwidth available going from your office to a co-worker's office in the same building can be 200 times more than the bandwidth from your office to a branch office down the block.

This is true in 90% or more cases. Note the following exceptions:

  • If these are different buildings but on the same campus, more bandwidth may be available.
  • If you are in a central business district of a major city, more bandwidth may be available.
  • If you are a telecommunications or research company, more bandwidth may be available.

Different Buildings

The key driver in bandwidth availability is the cost increase of deploying networks between buildings. Generally referred to as the Wide Area Network or WAN, this type of bandwidth is usually provided by telecommunications companies. One common example is cable modem or DSL, which can provide anywhere from .5 Mb/s to 5 Mb/s at $20 to $50 per month. Another example is a T1, which provides 1.5Mb/s for about $300 to $600 per month. Above this level, bandwidth generally becomes very expensive. In most locations, getting 10Mb/s of bandwidth can cost thousands per month.

Get Video Surveillance News In Your Inbox
Get Video Surveillance News In Your Inbox

Many talk about fiber (sometimes called FTTH/FTTC) but fiber to the building is not and will not be widely available for years. Fiber to the home or to the business promises to reduce the cost of bandwidth significantly. Nevertheless, it is very expensive to deploy and despite excited discussions for the last decade or more, progress remains slow. If you have it great, but do not assume it.

Same Buildings

By contrast, bandwidth inside of buildings (or campuses) is quite plentiful because the install costs are quite low. Non technical users can easily set up a 1,000 Mb/s networks inside a building (aka Local Area Networks or LANs) for less than $1,000 installation cost with no monthly costs. Contrast this to the WAN, where the same bandwidth could cost tens of thousands of dollars per month.

The cost of deploying networks in buildings are low because there are minimal to no construction expenses. When you are building a network across a city, you need to get rights of ways, trench, install on telephone poles, etc. These are massive projects that can easily demand millions or billions of dollars in up front expenses. By contrast, inside a building, the cables can often by quickly and simply fished through ceilings (not the professional way to do it but the way many people do it in deployments).

Wireless

A lot of discussion about wireless (WiMax, WiFi, 3G, etc) exists but wireless will not provide significantly greater bandwidth nor significantly better costs than DSL or cable modem. As such, wireless will not solve the expense and limitations of bandwidth between buildings. That being said, wireless absolutely has benefits for mobility purposes and connecting to remote locations that DSL or cable modem cannot cost effectively serve.

Simple point to point wireless links have become inexpensive but are limited in where they can be used. Today, 50-100 Mb/s wireless connections for a few hundred dollars are feasible (excluding installation). However, these only can be used when clear line of sight is available. This helps when you want to locate a camera 100 meters away in a parking lot but not if you want to transmit across a city.

How Much Bandwidth Do IP Cameras Consume?

For the bandwidth consumption of an IP camera, use 1-2 Mb/s as a rough rule of thumb. Many factors impact total bandwidth consumption. You can certainly stream an IP camera as low as .2 Mb/s (or 200 Kb/s) and others as high as 6 Mb/s. In 2012, the most typical IP camera being deployed are HD (720p or 1080p) using the H.264 codec at about 6-10fps. With this configuration, bandwidth consumption will be in the range of 1-2 Mb/s. Of course, the more resolution and greater frame rate you want, the more bandwidth will be used.

What Does this Mean for my IP Video System?

Just like dealing with personal finance, we can now figure out what we can 'afford':

  • Between Buildings: We have .5 Mb/s to 5 Mb/s to 'spend'
  • Inside Buildings: We have 70 Mb/s to 700 Mb/s to 'spend'
  • IP cameras: Cost us 1-2 Mb/s each

Using these points, we can quickly see what combination of IP and megapixel cameras we can use between buildings or inside of buildings.

  1. Inside of buildings, it is easy to stream numerous IP and megapixel cameras.
  2. Between buildings, it is almost impossible to stream numerous IP and megapixel cameras.

Because of this situation, the standard configuration one sees in IP Video systems is:

  • A local recorder at each building/remote site. The local recorder receives the streams from the building and stores them.
  • The local recorder only forwards the streams (live or recorded) off-site when a user specifically wants to view video. Rather than overloading the WAN network with unrealistic bandwidth demands all day long, bandwidth is only consumed when a user wants to watch. Generally, remote viewing is sporadic and IP video coexists nicely with the expensive Wide Area Network.
  • The local recorder has built-in features to reduce the bandwidth needed to stream video to remote clients. Most systems have the ability to reduce the frame rate of the live video stream or to dynamically reduce the video quality to ensure that the video system does not overload the network and that remote viewers can actually see what is going on the other side. Generally, the live video stream is sufficient to identify the basic threat. In any event, bandwidth is generally so costly, especially the upstream bandwidth needed to send to a remote viewer, that this is the best financial decision.

Conclusion

Knowing how much bandwidth is available and how much bandwidth IP cameras consume are key elements in planning and deploying viable IP video systems. Though this is simply a broad survey, my hope is that this helps identify fundamental elements in understanding the impact of bandwidth on IP video.

2 reports cite this report:

Is Bandwidth a Problem for IP Cameras? on Mar 21, 2009
Integrators often cite bandwidth as a key concern for deploying IP cameras. Let's examine what the potential issues are and where they may be...
IT Tutorial for Physical Security Managers on Feb 07, 2009
Much of the fear in IT convergence comes from new technology and operational issues of using IT for physical security systems. The goal of this...

Related Reports

Large US University End-User Video Surveillance Interview on Mar 18, 2019
Schools have become targets in modern days of active shooters and terrorist fears. The need for video and access security is high. Universities...
Church Technology Director Security Interview on Mar 07, 2019
With 40+ years of experience in IT from a wide array of verticals, including US and foreign military, and large corporate and industrial settings,...
Ubiquiti Favorability Results 2019 on Feb 18, 2019
Ubiquiti has quietly grown into a $1+ billion annual revenue company, with offerings across wireless, wireline network and video surveillance (see...
Bandwidth vs Low Light Shootout - Avigilon, Axis, Bosch, Dahua, Geovision, Hanwha, Hikvision, Uniview, Vivotek on Feb 08, 2019
Nighttime bandwidth spikes are a major concern in video surveillance, but do all manufacturers' cameras perform the same? Are some more consistent...
Designing Access Control Guide on Jan 30, 2019
Designing an access control solution requires decisions on 8 fundamental questions. This in-depth guide helps you understand the options and...
ONVIF Video Surveillance Tutorial on Jan 29, 2019
ONVIF is well known within the surveillance industry as an interface to connect IP cameras and VMS systems. However, new users may find it...
Access Control Turnstiles Guide on Jan 28, 2019
Turnstiles control pedestrian access to secured areas, essentially becoming moving portions of fences, walls, or barricades for physically stop...
Verkada Cloud VMS/Cameras Tested on Jan 28, 2019
Verkada is arguably the most ambitious video surveillance startup in many years. The company is developing their own cameras, their own VMS, their...
Camera Course Winter 2019 - Last Chance on Jan 24, 2019
This is the last chance to register for the Winter 2019 Camera Course. This is the only independent surveillance camera course, based on in-depth...
Testing Bandwidth vs. Frame Rate on Jan 23, 2019
Selecting frame rate has a major impact on surveillance bandwidth and storage consumption. But with smart codecs now common and cameras more...

Most Recent Industry Reports

ONVIF Favorability Results 2019 on Mar 15, 2019
In the past decade, ONVIF has grown from a reaction to the outside Cisco-lead PSIA challenge, to being the de facto video surveillance standard...
Hanwha Aerospace / Techwin Korean Tax Evasion Raid on Mar 15, 2019
A Hanwha group subsidiary was raided as part of a tax evasion probe. While a Korean news media report listed the raided entity as 'Hanwha...
Installation Course - Last Chance on Mar 14, 2019
Today is the last chance to register for the March Installation course. This is a unique installation course in a market where little practical...
City Physical Security Manager Interview on Mar 14, 2019
This physical security pro is the Physical Security Manager for the City of Calgary. He is a criminologist by training with an ASIS CPP credential....
US Drafting Separate Rule for NDAA Dahua/Hikvision 'Blacklist' on Mar 14, 2019
The most debated provision of the NDAA ban of Dahua, Hikvision, Huawei, et al. is the so-called 'blacklist' provision which would ban any company...
OpenALPR Acquired By Mysterious Novume on Mar 13, 2019
Startup OpenALPR has been acquired by Novume, a company virtually unknown in the industry. While there are many LPR providers (see our directory),...
Milestone Machine Learning Camera Auto-Setting Examined on Mar 13, 2019
Milestone wants to improve image quality using Machine Learning to solve the problem of "a camera doesn't know what it is being used for",...
Integrator Profitability Bonuses - Statistics on Mar 13, 2019
While winning projects typically gets the most attention, how profitable those jobs turn out to be is key to the long-term success of integrators....
ADT Stock Drops After Announcing Loss And Amazon Delay on Mar 12, 2019
ADT's stock price dropped significantly after reporting heavy losses and delays in its Amazon partnership, as seen in the screenshot below: In...
Pelco GFC 4K Dome Camera Tested (IMP831-1ERS) on Mar 12, 2019
Pelco has finally released their first 4K IP camera, after years of competitors' releases. Is this move too late? Or is their new GFC Professional...

The world's leading video surveillance information source, IPVM provides the best reporting, testing and training for 10,000+ members globally. Dedicated to independent and objective information, we uniquely refuse any and all advertisements, sponsorship and consulting from manufacturers.

About | FAQ | Contact