Selecting Access Control Readers Tutorial

By Brian Rhodes, Published May 11, 2021, 08:49am EDT

Given the variety of types available, specifying access control readers can be a daunting process. However, focusing on a few key elements will help you arrive at the right product no matter which system you are using.

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These factors are:

  • The Basic Reader Types: Contactless, Barcodes, Keypads, and Biometrics
  • Quick Overview Of Contactless Frequencies and Formats
  • How Mounting Surfaces Impact Selection
  • Why Establishing Contactless Read Range Is Crucial
  • Awareness Of Infrastructure Requirements Like Power and Connectivity
  • Protocol Support (Wiegand vs. OSDP)

In this note, we address these attributes, explain how they are different, and help users understand which reader is the ideal choice for their application.

[Note: This tutorial was originally published in 2014 and substantially revised in 2021]

Credential ****

*** ***** ********* **** defines **** ******* *** which *********** **** *** designed ** ****.

*** ******** ****** ******* applications, *** ********** **** has ******* **** *********** and ** ***. ******* in ****-**** ******* *** use ***-******** ********** ***** and *** ******* ******** readers **** *** ******** manufacturer, ******** *********** ******* as * ******.

*******, ****** ******* *** equipped ** **** ******* credential *****, ** ****** an ******** ********* ** the ******* ******* ** use ** * ******** step.

*********** ***** ****** ** picture ***, *** ********** take *** **** ** cards, *** *** **** several ***** - *** our****** ********** **** ****** Tutorial*** **** *******. *** following **** ******* *** major ***** ** *********** used ** ****** ****** control *******:

  • *** *********, *** *** Standard *********: *** **** common ********** ***** ** use ******* *** ****** to **** *** ********** near *** ******, *** not **** ******* **** it. ***** *********** *** be **** ******* *******, pockets, *** ***** - and **** *** ******** used ** ** *****, keyfobs, *** ********** ********.
  • **** *********, **.** *** Smartcard: *** ****** **** of **** ******** ** onboard ******* **** (***) that ****** ****** **********, more *******, *** **** rewriting ************. ********** ***** this ******** ********** ***** use *** **** *** multiple *******, ********* ******* access *** ******* *****.
  • *******/*********: ***** ******* ******** obsolete ** *** **** of ********* **** ****-***, older ****** ******* *** still *** ***** ***********. While ********** ** ******* and *********** ** *****, magstripe/barcode-based *********** **** *** security ** ***** ******* and *** ** ****** or ******* ******. ** addition, *** ********** ** these *********** ** *** well ****** *** ********** use, ** **** **** degaussing ** ******** ********* can ****** ***********.
  • **********: ***** ************* ******** belonging **** ** ******** users ** **** *******. Fingerprints, **** *****, ****/*******, and **** *********** ******* are ******** **** ** systems.
  • ******** **********: ***** ***** of *********** ***** *** or **** ** *** listed ***** ** * single **********. ***** **** expensive, ***** ***** *** the **** ******** ***** they *** ** **** with ******* ********* ******* and *** ** *********** from *** ********.

Credential ********* *********

*** *********** ***********, * type ** ** ********** called '******** ****** ********' is **** ** ******** card ***********.

** ***** *****, *** principal ********* ** ****** 125 *** *** **.** MHz *********** **** ******* is *** *** ****** to ******* *** **** embedded ** *** ****/ delivers ***** ********** ** the ****, ***** **** momentarily ****** ****** *** then **** ** ** broadcast **** ******* **** to *** ******. *** image ***** ***** * transparent ******* ** * card, ********* *** ***** components:

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* **** **** *** 125 *** *********** ** how **** *** ***** it ** ** **** card ******* ******* *** knowledge ** *** ******. These ******* *** *** encoded ** ********* *** can ** ****** ** copiers **** ****** ******.

*** ****** **** ** copy *** ***** ***** much *** **** *** as ****** **** *******. Our **** ***** ***** from ***** *** ******* of ***** *********, ********** access ******* ******* *** be * ******** *******.**** **** ****** ******* With **** $** *** 125kHz **** *********** *** ***$** ********* ** **** ** seconds ** ***** *** 125kHz ********* ****** *****:

13.56 *** ****** ***********

*** *** **** **.** MHz ****** ******* ***** come **** *** ********* vendors:

** *******, *** ****** iClass ** **** ********* on * ***-****** *** per-credential ***** ******** ** MIFARE/DESFire. *** ****** ** the **** ********** ** largely *** ** *********, as *** *** ******* is ********, ** *** manufactured ********, ** *** or ***** ****** **** Abloy. ** ********, *** non-HID ******* *** '**** use' *** *********** **** for *** ************ ** build ******* ******* **** with ** ********* ****.

*** ****** ******* ********** between ****** ****** ******* varies ***** ** ********** part *******, *** *** cost ********** ********* ****** 10% - **% **** for ***-*** ********. *******, especially ** ***** *******, support, *******/******* *******, *** product ************ *** ** better *** *** *** retains * *********** ****** share ** **** ******. Elsewhere ** *** *****, NXP-based ******* *** ** more *******, *** *******/******* may ** **** *********.

Multifactor ********** *******

** ******* ****** **** than *** ********** **** to ******** *****, **** are ***** ** '*********** readers'.

***** ***** *** ***** required *** ****-******** ************ or ** ***** ***** credential ***********. *** *******, a ****** *********** **** combines * ********* **** reader **** * ******, so ** * **** forgets ** ********* * card **** *** ***** able ** *** * code *** *****. *********** 'multifactor' ***** ***** ******* card *********** **** ********** like ************, *******, ** palm ******.

** * ***** **** entry ****** ******** ********* cards, *********** *****, ** a ****** **** ** order ** ** '***********', two ** **** *********** would ** ******** *** entry, *** **** ********* credential ****** *** ********** for *** **** ** present ** *** ****. The ***** ***** ***** an ******* ** * typical '*****-******' ****** ******:

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**** ********** '*******' **** additional ********** ********, ********* biometric ********* **** ***** are ************* ********** **** the ****** ******* ******. The ***** **** *********** readers ******* ********** ********** factors ***** ******* ** affected ** *** ***** number ** ******* **** must ** ********, *** the ****** ** ********** a ********** **** **** to ** *********.

***** **** *** ******* integrate ******* **** ***** keypad **** *******, ************* with ********* ******* ** high-security ********** ** ******* to ********** ****** ******* systems.

Mounting *******

*********** *** ******** ******** location *** *** ****** is *** **** **** - ***** **** ******* are '************', **** ******** types (********** ********* ***** units) *** *** ****** for ***** ********. ** the ********* *******, ** address *** **** ****** mounting *********, *** ******** the ********* ** ******* the ******* *******:

********/*******

**** **** ********** *******, the ***** ******** *** mounting ******** **** ** sealed ******* ******** *** protected ******* ********. ******* are ******** ********* ** 'potted' *********, ***** *** internal ********** ********** *** sealed ** ***** ** prevent ******* **** ********. Confirming * ****** ** suitable *** ******* *** is ********** ***** ** 'potted' ** **********, ***** departs **** ********-******** ** ratings. ***********, *** ****** appearance ** *** ****** may *** ****** ******* potted/non ****** *********.

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Wall *****

*** **** ***** *********** for ******** ******* ** on *** **** ****** the ********** *******. ***** smaller ******* *** ** designed ** ***** ******** to ******* ** ******* with ****** ******, ******* readers *** ******* ********** brackets. ****** ********* *** be ******** ****** ******* bored ***** ** *****, or ********* *** ** terminated ** ******-**** ******** boxes - ** **** case, *** ****** ** frequently ******* ******** **** a ******** *** ***** plate.

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Mullion *****

***** ***** ** ******** to ********, ** ***** control ******* ****** ** fished ******* **** ************, a ****** ******** ** mounting ******* **** ****** door ******. ******* *** mounting ******* ** ********* metallic, ********** ******* *** shielded ******* *** ** required. ***** ******* *** identifiable ** ***** **** profile, ***** **** * few ****** ****. **** though ***** ******* *** narrower **** ******* ****-***** types, **** *** ********* in *** **** **** ranges *** ***** *** same *****-****** (**: **********, keypad) *******.

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Bollard *****

******* **** *** ****/******* lot ************ *** ********** mounted ** ***** ** concrete ***** ********. ***** devices ********* **** ****** read ****** **** **** mounted ***** ***** *** credential *** ** **** away ****** ** ********** or ********** *******. ***** these ******* *** ********* connected ** ****** *********** the **** ** ***** readers, **** *** ******* extra ***** ******** *** cable *********/*********. ***** ***** of ******* *** **** require *** *** ** media ********** ** ***** expander ******* ** ******** their ************* ******** ** controllers.

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Turnstile *****

*** ** *** **** challenging ******** ********* *** a ****** ** ** a ********* - *** only *** ***** ***** typically ********, **** *** frequently ******* ** ******* shock, ** ********, *** impact *****. ******** ******* readers *** ******* ******** replacement. ** * ******, ruggedized / ******-********* ******* are *********** *** ********* applications.

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Read *****

*********** *** ******** * card ****** ** ****** to ****** * ********** is *** **** ****. Understanding *** ***** ******* the ****** *** *** controlled ******* ** ******** - *** **** **** it **** **** ** physically ****** **** * reader ** **** * door (********** **** ********** accessible ********), *** ******** distance ******* * **** reader *** ** ********** may ******* ******* *************.

********** ******* *** ********* available ** ***** ******* defined *********. **** ************ defines *** ***** ******** differently, *** *** ***** is ********* ********** ** the ******** ***********, ************ sources, *** **** ** sight. *** ******** ********** are:

*****:***** ***** **** ******** between ***** ******* *** 6" - *", *** are ***** ******* *********** adjacent ** ***** ** mullions ** *****. ***** for ***** ******* *** be ********* ***** ******** from *** ********** ******* extra ***** ********.

******: ******* ** *** class ********* ***** ******* close ******* *** **" - **", *** *** suited *** *** ** parking **** *** ** bollards ** ***** ******** to *****. ***** ***** feature ********* ******* **** configurations, ******* **** ***** than *****-***** *******, *** typically **** ****.

****: ***** ******* ** this ***** ********* **** between * **** *** up ** ** ****. Because ** *** ******* distance, ******* ** **** category **** ** ******* with *** **** ************** as ******** ********** *********: physical **** ** ***** must ** **********, ******** wireless ******* *** ** sources ** ************, *** reader *********** ** ******** for ********** *********.

*** ******* **** ***** length **** ** ************* different, **** *** ***** frequency ****** ****** ******** longer *********. ***** *** maximum ***** ** *** a ******* ****** *** wall ***** ** ******* mount ************ ***** ***** pass **** **** * inches **** **** *** reader, ***** **** ********* 13.56MHz ******* ****** **** at ****** ****** *** a ******* ****** ** vehicle **** ************.

*** *******, ******* *** ****-***** ************ ** ** **" with ******** *** ******* credentials, *** *******.** *** **************** ***** **" *** have ********* *** ** sell ********** *** **************** *** ****** ****** instead *** **** ***********.

** ** ********* ** note **** *** *** credential ***** **** *** range ********** *********. **** common ********** ***** *** not **** *** ********* of '**** *****' ******* available, *** ********** ******* commonly **** ** ****** may *** ** ******** for **** *** ** the **, *** **** versa.

Required **************

*** ***** ****** ** consider ** **** ******* or ********* ********* *** required ** *** *******. Reader ************** ******* ** consider *******:

*****: **** ******* *** designed ** ******* ** 12VDC/24VDC *** **** ***, but ********** *** ****-***** types *** ******* ********* utilities. ** *******, ******* are *** ******* **** devices, ********* ******* **** milliamps. **** ***** ** 'stand-alone' ******* ******* **** battery ***** *** ******* no ******* ***** **********.

****: **** ******* *** connected ** *********** **** UTP ** **/* *****, but ********** ****** ***** may ******* ***-******* **** gauges ** ******* ******** like ***** ****** ** shielding. ******** ********, ********* using * ***** ** many ***** *********** ******, are ********** ******* ** low-cost *** ***-**** ******** applications. **********, **** ******* is ******** ** ******** to ******* ************ **** corrupting **** ******** ******* reader *** ********** *****.

********* ***** ** ********: ***** *** * traditional ************** *********, ** often ********** ******* ** a ****** ****** ** securing *** *******. ******* most ****** ***** ******* have * ****** ******* life, *** **** ******** lock ********** ****** **** backup ***** (**: ********), a ********** **** *** key **** ** *********. Managing *** *********** **** hardware ** *** *********, but *** **** ********** use ** ***** ***** requires * ****-********* *** managed*** ******* ******.

*********/*******:*******, ***** *** *********, secondary ******* **** ********* and ***** ************ ******* can **** ******** ***** requesting ********** ** ***** without ****** ***********. **********, a ********** ****** ******* or ***** * ********** and **** *** ******* this **** ***** ******** at *** ********** *******. Having ** ******** ********* allows ******** ***** ** communicate **** ******* ******* credentials, ******* ************ **** security ** ********** ****** to ****** *****.

Protocol ******* (******* **. ****)

* ******'* ****** ****** must ** ********** **** the **********. **** ******* must ******* ******* ** OSDP, ** ****** ****** interfaces ************* *** ****** operations. ******* *** **** useful **** ********** **** the ****** ****** ******, specifically *** **** **********.

*** **** ***** *** standard ************* ************* ******** between ******* *** ********** has **** *******, ** interface **** ******** ****** serial ** ***/** *************. Since *** ***** ****'* Wiegand *** **** ** standardize ****** ******* ** a *** **** *********** could *********, ********** ** manufacturer.

*******, ******* *** **** weaknesses **** *** **** amplified ** *** ****** era. **** ** **********, unidirectional ************, *** *** physical *********** ** *********** data **** *** **** far ******** ** ****** credential *** ****** ****** design. ** * ******, a *** ******** ******** called **** ** ***** promoted ** ******* ****** companies.

********** ** ******** *** ****** ********* details, *** *** ******* advantage ** **** ** better ****** *************, ****** monitoring, *** **** ******** than *** *** ******* protocol. ** *** ******* time, *** ******** ** Wiegand ** ********** *** common, **** **** **** so. *******, **** ** changing, **** **** ************* offering *** ******** ********** the ******** *** ***** to ****** ** ** years *****.

[****: **** ******** *** originally ********* ** **** and ************* ******* ** 2021.]

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